The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine

Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 2288-6028   pISSN 1226-3729

Table. 4.

Table. 4.

Measured parameters according to FRS and physical fitness-based classification

Variable Low FRS/fit (n=85) Low FRS/unfit (n=44) Intermediate or high FRS/fit (n=68) Intermediate or high FRS/unfit (n=111) p-value
FRS (%) 6.6±1.9*, 7.0±1.5*, 16.0±5.7,§, 18.7±7.2,§,* <0.001
Physical fitness Z-score 0.60±0.43§,*, −0.46±0.34,* 0.41±0.27,§, −0.53±0.48,* <0.001
K-MMSE score 27.0±2.4§,*, 25.0±3.8, 25.7±3.2, 23.0±4.1,§,* <0.001
Age (yr) 68.2±5.9§,*, 73.3±5.5, 73.8±6.1, 77.3±5.0,§,* <0.001
Menopause age (yr) 50.1±5.4 48.7±6.4 49.2±4.5 49.2±5.0 0.501
Height (cm) 153.2±5.4 152.3±4.9 151.6±4.5 151.4±4.7 0.076
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.6±2.9 24.2±2.4 24.5±3.0 25.6±3.5,§,* <0.001
Waist circumstance (cm) 86.9±13.2 91.7±13.5 90.2±11.6 93.9±14.5 0.004
Education <0.001
Elementary or less 27 (31.8) 25 (56.8) 41 (60.3) 89 (80.2)
Middle/high school 52 (61.1) 15 (34.1) 26 (38.2) 22 (19.8)
College or higher 6 (7.1) 4 (9.1) 1 (1.5) 0 (0)
Alcohol consumption 32 (37.6) 24 (54.5) 29 (42.6) 42 (37.8) 0.235
Physical inactivity 21 (24.7) 24 (54.5) 29 (42.6) 65 (58.6) <0.001
Fall experience 26 (30.6) 14 (31.8) 13 (19.1) 31 (27.9) 0.357
Sarcopenia 17 (20.0) 11 (25.0) 11 (16.2) 26 (23.4) 0.612
Osteoporosis 11 (12.9) 9 (20.5) 17 (25.0) 30 (27.0) 0.104
FRS parameter
HDL-C (mg/dL) 57.7±13.1*, 55.7±13.2*, 50.6±13.7,§ 49.3±13.3,§ <0.001
TC (mg/dL) 180.8±164.4 177.1±25.8 177.1±38.7 181.2±40.9 0.070
SBP (mmHg) 119.1±12.8*, 120.0±10.3*, 133.8±9.7,§ 134.9±12.9,§ <0.001
Hypertension treated 25 (29.4) 18 (40.9) 45 (66.2) 81 (73.0) <0.001
Smoking 2 (2.4) 0 (0) 3 (4.4) 3 (2.7) 0.555
Diabetes mellitus 2 (2.4) 1 (2.3) 17 (25.0) 41 (36.9) <0.001
Physical fitness parameter
Upper body strength (time/30 sec) 21.0±4.1§, 14.9±3.7,* 20.2±3.7§, 16.1±3.9,* <0.001
Lower body strength (time/30 sec) 17.5±4.3§,*, 11.9±2.4,* 16.1±3.2,§, 12.1±2.9,* <0.001
Upper body flexibility (cm) −4.0±9.9§, −16.1±11.3,* −6.0±12.0§, −17.5±10.8,* <0.001
Lower body flexibility (cm) 15.7±6.7§, 7.4±9.8,* 14.5±6.8§, 5.6±9.7,* <0.001
Aerobic endurance (time/2 min) 109.5±14.3§, 92.9±17.0,*, 106.9±15.2§, 86.3±22.8,§,* <0.001

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation or number (%).

FRS: Framingham risk score, Z-score: standard score, K-MMSE: Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, HDL-C: high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC: total cholesterol, SBP: systolic blood pressure.

*Significantly different from middle and high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk/fit; significantly different from middle and high CVD risk/un-fit; significantly different from low CVD risk/fit; §significantly different from low CVD risk/un-fit.

Korean J Sports Med 2021;39:51-9 https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2021.39.2.51
© 2021 Korean J Sports Med