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The Effect of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Central Blood Pressure Reactivity to Sympathetic Activation in Healthy Adults: A Randomized Crossover Trial
Korean J Sports Med 2021;39:27-33
Published online March 1, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2021.39.1.27
© 2021 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Min Jeong Cho1, Young Woo Kim1, Jeong In Kwon1, Hyun Jeong Kim1, Sae Young Jae1,2

1Department of Sport Science, University of Seoul, 2Graduate School of Urban Public Health, University of Seoul, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Sae Young Jae
Department of Sport Science, College of Arts and Physical Education, University of Seoul, 163 Seoulsiripdae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02504, Korea
Tel: +82-2-6490-2953, Fax: +82-2-6490-2949, E-mail: syjae@uos.ac.kr
*This work was supported by the Basic Study and Interdisciplinary R&D Foundation Fund of the University of Seoul (No.202006031004).
Received December 24, 2020; Revised January 28, 2021; Accepted February 8, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: Acute aerobic exercise has been shown to attenuate brachial blood pressure (BP) reactivity to sympathetic activation, though whether it also attenuates central BP reactivity remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that an acute bout of aerobic exercise would attenuate central BP reactivity to sympathetic activation.
Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 15 healthy adults (23짹0 years and 23짹1 kg/m2) completed two trials; (1) acute aerobic exercise (30 minutes at 60% of heart rate reserve) and (2) sitting as a time control prior to the cold pressor test (CPT) in a randomized order. During the CPT, a hand was submerged up to the wrist in an iced water bath (4째C) for 3 minutes. Heart rate and brachial and central BP were measured at baseline, during and after the CPT.
Results: Heart rate, and brachial and central BPs increased similarly during the CPT in both trials and returned to baseline after CPT (time effect, p< 0.05). However, brachial systolic BP reactivity to the CPT was attenuated in the acute aerobic exercise trial compared to control trial (interaction effect, p< 0.05). In addition, the magnitude of central systolic BP reactivity during the CPT was less increased in the acute aerobic exercise trial (19.8 mmHg) versus in the control trial (24.6 mmHg) (p=0.017).
Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that acute aerobic exercise attenuated both brachial and central BP reactivity to the sympathetic activation, suggesting that aerobic exercise may have a favorable effect on central BP reactivity to the sympathetic activation in young adults.
Keywords : Exercise, Blood pressure, Autonomic nervous system, Vasomotor system, Sympathetic nervous system
꽌 濡

씤泥대뒗 옄쑉떊寃쎄퀎(autonomic nervous system)쓽 쟻젅븳 洹좏삎쓣 넻빐 떖삁愿怨 빆긽꽦쓣 議곗젅븳떎1. 듅젙 긽솴뿉꽌 옄쑉떊寃쎄퀎 以 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎(sympathetic nervous system)쓽 솢꽦솕瑜 넻빐 떖諛뺤텧웾, 삁愿 빆, 떖諛뺤닔 諛 삁븬쓣 利앷떆耳 떖삁愿怨 빆긽꽦쓣 쑀吏븳떎1. 洹몃윭굹 留뚯꽦쟻쑝濡 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎媛 怨쇳솢꽦솕(hypereactivation)릺硫 떖삁愿怨꾩뿉 怨쇰룄븳 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 二쇨쾶 릺怨 씠濡 씤빐 怨좏삁븬, 遺젙留, 떖옣鍮꾨, 떖遺쟾, 洹몃━怨 떖옣룎뿰궗 媛숈 떖삁愿怨 吏덊솚쓽 쐞뿕꽦씠 利앷븳떎1. 듅엳, 씪떆쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 뵲瑜 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳 怨좏삁븬 諛 뇤議몄쨷 諛쒖깮 쐞뿕怨 떖삁愿怨 궗留앸쪧쓣 넂씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎2,3. 뜑슧씠, 젙긽 삁븬쓣 媛吏 寃쎌슦뿉룄 떖由ъ쟻 삉뒗 떊泥댁쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 끂異쒖뿉 뵲瑜 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳 뼢썑 怨좏삁븬 諛 떖삁愿 吏덊솚 諛쒖깮 쐞뿕꽦쓣 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎4,5.

씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎瑜 옄洹뱁븯뒗 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 깋븬諛뺢궗(cold pressor test)瑜 留롮씠 궗슜븳떎6. 깋븬諛뺢궗뒗 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎瑜 솢꽦솕븯뿬 떖諛뺤닔 諛 삁븬 긽듅怨 媛숈 떖삁愿怨 蹂솕瑜 쑀諛쒗븳떎5,7. 씪遺 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 깋븬諛뺢궗 떆쓽 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳(blood pressure hyperreactivity) 怨좏삁븬, 愿긽룞留μ쭏솚 諛 寃쎈룞留 룞留κ꼍솕 諛쒖깮怨 愿젴씠 엳떎怨 젣떆븯떎4,8. 뵲씪꽌 떖삁愿怨 吏덊솚쓣 삁諛⑺븯湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븯뒗 寃껋씠 以묒슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

嫄닿컯븳 깮솢뒿愿 떖由ъ쟻·깮由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 옒 븣젮졇 엳떎9,10. 洹 以 쑀궛냼 슫룞 떖삁愿吏덊솚쓽 쐞뿕씤옄瑜 媛쒖꽑븯뒗 슚怨쇨 엳쓣 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪11, 뒪듃젅뒪 옄洹뱀쑝濡 씤븳 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븳떎뒗 뿬윭 蹂닿퀬뱾씠 엳떎12,13. 씠윭븳 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 슚怨쇱 愿젴맂 꽑뻾뿰援щ뱾 遺遺 긽셿룞留(brachial artery)怨 媛숈 留먯큹룞留μ뿉꽌 삁븬쓣 痢≪젙븯떎.

삁븬 留먯큹룞留 삁븬(peripheral blood pressure)怨 以묒떖룞留 삁븬(central aortic blood pressure)쑝濡 굹닃 닔 엳떎. 쟾옄뒗 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 긽셿룞留μ뿉꽌 痢≪젙븯뒗 삁븬쓣 留먰븯硫, 썑옄뒗 以묒떖룞留 삉뒗 寃쎈룞留(carotid artery) 遺쐞뿉꽌 痢≪젙븯뒗 삁븬쓣 쓽誘명븳떎. 洹몃룞븞 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 愿삁쟻(移⑥뒿쟻) 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 痢≪젙릺뼱 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 궗슜븯湲곗뿉뒗 뼱젮씠 엳뿀쑝굹, 鍮꾧삁쟻(鍮꾩묠뒿쟻) 痢≪젙諛⑸쾿씠 媛쒕컻릺硫댁꽌 쁽옱 엫긽뿉꽌 떎뼇븯寃 솢슜릺怨 엳떎14. 理쒓렐 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 以묒떖룞留 삁븬씠 留먯큹룞留 삁븬蹂대떎 떖삁愿吏덊솚쓽 諛쒖깮怨 뜑 諛젒븳 愿怨꾧 엳떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯硫, 以묒떖룞留 삁븬쓽 以묒슂꽦쓣 떆궗븯怨 엳떎14,15. 洹몃읆뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨, 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 뒪듃젅뒪 옄洹뱀뿉 쓽븳 以묒떖룞留μ쓽 삁븬 諛섏쓳뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 궡렣蹂 뿰援щ뒗 留ㅼ슦 遺議깊븳 떎젙씠떎. 꽌援ъ뿉꽌 吏꾪뻾맂 떒吏 몢 렪쓽 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 씪쉶꽦 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 긽듅 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯떎16,17. 洹몃윭굹 씠윭븳 슚怨쇰뒗 슫룞쓽 삎깭, 媛뺣룄 諛 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 슚怨쇨 떎瑜 닔 엳쑝誘濡 異붽쟻씤 뿰援ш 븘슂븯硫, 듅엳 룞뼇씤쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援щ뒗 嫄곗쓽 뾾뒗 떎젙씠떎. 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 蹂솕뒗 留먯큹룞留ν삁븬 諛섏쓳怨 諛젒븳 愿젴꽦씠 엳쑝誘濡, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븷 寃껋씠씪뒗 媛꽕쓣 寃利앺븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

1. 뿰援щ긽

20쓽 嫄닿컯븳 꽦씤 15紐(굹씠, 23±2꽭; 泥댁쭏웾吏닔, 22.6± 2.6 kg/m2; 궓옄 8紐/뿬옄 7紐)쓣 꽌슱떆由쎈븰援 愿묎퀬瑜 넻빐 臾댁옉쐞濡 紐⑥쭛븯떎. 떎뿕 李몄뿬옄뱾 紐⑤몢 떖삁愿怨 吏덊솚, 궗꽦 吏덊솚 諛 洹쇨낏寃⑷퀎 吏덊솚쓣 吏꾨떒諛쏄굅굹 愿젴 빟臾쇱쓣 蹂듭슜븯吏 븡븯쑝硫 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 젣븳씠 뾾뿀떎. 李몄뿬옄뱾쓽 엫긽쟻 듅吏뺤 Table 1怨 媛숇떎. 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 꽌슱떆由쎈븰援 깮紐낆쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶쓽 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븯쑝硫(No. UOS IRB 2020-10), 뵾뿕옄뱾뿉寃 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻怨 궡슜쓣 異⑸텇엳 꽕紐낇븯怨 떎뿕 李멸 룞쓽꽌瑜 諛쏆 썑뿉 떎뿕쓣 吏꾪뻾븯떎.

Table 1 . Characteristics of subject (n=15)

VariableValue
Age (yr)23.0±0.5
Height (cm)173.0±2.0
Weight (kg)68.9±3.3
BMI (kg/m2)22.6±0.7
Body fat (%)21.7±1.8
SBP (mmHg)112.9±2.3
DBP (mmHg)72.3±1.6
Resting HR (beats/min)61.3±1.9

Values are presented as mean±standard error of mean.

BMI: body mass index, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, HR: heart rate.



2. 泥섏튂 諛⑸쾿 諛 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 뵾뿕옄뱾씠 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂 넻젣 泥섏튂뿉 紐⑤몢 李몄뿬븯뒗 臾댁옉쐞 援먯감꽕怨(randomized crossover design)濡 떎떆븯떎. 泥섏튂 닚꽌뒗 젣鍮꾨퐨湲곕 넻빐 臾댁옉쐞濡 꽑젙븯쑝硫 씠쟾 泥섏튂쓽 쁺뼢쓣 理쒖냼솕븯湲 쐞빐 몢 泥섏튂 궗씠 媛꾧꺽(wash-out time)쓣 理쒖냼 3씪濡 꽕젙븯떎. 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕 諛⑸쾿 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 二쇰줈 씠슜릺뒗 깋븬諛뺢궗瑜 궗슜븯떎6. 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂뒗 듃젅뱶諛뿉꽌 30遺 룞븞 以묎컯룄쓽 슫룞媛뺣룄(뿬쑀 떖諛뺤닔쓽 40%–60%)濡 떎떆븯떎. 슫룞 떆 紐⑺몴 떖諛뺤닔뒗 굹씠 븞젙 떆 떖諛뺤닔瑜 씠슜븳 移대낫꽙 怨듭떇([220–굹씠–븞젙 떆 떖諛뺤닔]×슫룞媛뺣룄竊뗭븞젙 떆 떖諛뺤닔)쑝濡 怨꾩궛븯떎. 슫룞 以 臾댁꽑 떖諛뺣룞 옣鍮(RS800CX; Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland)瑜 넻빐 泥섏튂맂 슫룞媛뺣룄瑜 以닔븷 닔 엳룄濡 議곗젙븯떎. 넻젣 泥섏튂뒗 슫룞 泥섏튂 룞씪븳 떆媛 룞븞(30遺) 븠 긽깭濡 쑕떇쓣 痍⑦뻽떎. 슫룞 泥섏튂 諛 넻젣 泥섏튂 醫낅즺 30遺 썑뿉 湲곗(baseline)瑜 痢≪젙븯怨 씠썑 깋븬諛뺢궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 깋븬諛뺢궗뿉꽌뒗 늻슫 옄꽭濡 3遺꾧컙 뼹쓬臾(4°C)뿉 醫뚯륫 넀紐⑷퉴吏 꽔 긽깭뿉꽌 痢≪젙 蹂씤뱾쓣 痢≪젙븯떎. 3遺 썑 利됱떆 뼹쓬臾쇱뿉꽌 넀쓣 鍮쇨퀬 쉶蹂듦린 룞븞쓽 蹂솕瑜 痢≪젙븯떎. 깋븬諛뺢궗 룞븞 諛쒖궡諛 샇씉쓣 뵾븯湲 쐞빐꽌 뵾뿕옄뱾뿉寃 젙긽샇씉 뙣꽩쓣 쑀吏븷 寃껋쓣 슂泥븯떎. 쟾諛섏쟻씤 떎뿕 꽕怨꾨뒗 Fig. 1뿉 젣떆븯떎.

Fig. 1. Experimental design. AE: aerobic exercise, Con: control, CPT: cold pressor test, Rec: recovery.

떎뿕 李몄뿬 쟾 8떆媛 씠긽 湲덉뿰怨 怨듬났 긽깭瑜 쑀吏븯怨, 24떆媛 룞븞 移댄럹씤, 븣肄붿삱, 鍮꾪誘 꽠痍 諛 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬瑜 궪媛븯룄濡 슂泥븯떎.

3. 痢≪젙 蹂씤

醫낆냽 蹂씤씤 긽셿룞留 삁븬, 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛 떖諛뺤닔瑜 깋븬諛뺢궗 쟾(baseline), 깋븬諛뺢궗 以, 洹몃━怨 깋븬諛 쉶蹂듦린 30珥덉 120珥덉뿉 痢≪젙븯떎. 긽셿룞留 삁븬 늻슫 옄꽭뿉꽌 옄룞 삁븬怨(JPN601; Omron, Kyoto, Japan)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 醫뚯륫 긽셿뿉꽌 痢≪젙븯떎. 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 痢≪젙븯떎. 슦痢 슂怨⑤룞留μ쓽 留ν뙆뿉꽌 뿰냽 10–12媛쒖쓽 뙆삎쓣 깘珥됱옄(Millar Instruments, Houston, TX, USA)瑜 씠슜빐 寃異쒗븯떎. 留먯큹룞留μ쓽 뙆삎쓣 以묒떖룞留 뙆삎쑝濡 留뚮뱶뒗 닔븰쟻씤 generalized transfer function (SphygmoCor System; AtCor Medical, Sydney, NSW, Australia)쓣 궗슜븯뿬, 寃異쒕맂 슂怨⑤룞留 뙆삎쓣 以묒떖룞留 뙆삎쑝濡 쟾솚떆耳곕떎18. 뼸뼱吏 以묒떖룞留 뙆삎쓣 遺꾩꽍븯뿬 궛異쒕맂 以묒떖룞留 삁븬媛믪쓣 뜲씠꽣濡 궗슜븯떎. 룊洹 삁븬 닔異뺢린 삁븬怨 솗옣湲 삁븬쓣 씠슜븯뿬 궛異 怨듭떇([닔異뺢린 삁븬竊2×솗옣湲 삁븬]/3)쑝濡 怨꾩궛븯떎. 떖諛뺤닔뒗 삁븬 痢≪젙怨 룞씪븳 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 깋븬諛뺢궗 以 삁븬 痢≪젙湲곕 씠슜븯뿬 痢≪젙븯떎.

4. 옄猷 泥섎━

紐⑤뱺 옄猷뚮뒗 룊洹좉낵 룊洹좎쓽 몴以삤李⑤줈 몴湲고븯떎. 뜲씠꽣쓽 젙洹쒖꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞븯뿬 Shapiro-Wilk 寃궗瑜 떆뻾븯떎. 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇰 洹쒕챸븯湲 쐞빐 泥섏튂(쑀궛냼 슫룞, 넻젣) 痢≪젙 떆湲(깋븬諛뺢궗 쟾, 寃궗 以, 쉶蹂듦린 30珥, 120珥)瑜 룆由 蹂씤쑝濡 븯뒗 2×4 諛섎났痢≪젙 씠썝諛곗튂遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍(two-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] with repeated measures)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 泥섏튂 媛꾩쓽 삁븬 諛섏쓳 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞븯뿬 媛 떆젏쓽 삁븬뿉꽌 湲곗긽깭쓽 삁븬쓣 類 蹂솕媛(Δ, delta)쓽 諛섎났痢≪젙 씪썝諛곗튂遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍(one-way ANOVA)쓣 떆뻾븯떎. 紐⑤뱺 넻怨꾨텇꽍 IBM SPSS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 씠슜븯쑝硫, 쑀쓽닔以 α<0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃 怨

깋븬諛뺢궗 룞븞 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂 넻젣 泥섏튂 紐⑤몢 긽셿 諛 以묒떖룞留 삁븬怨 떖諛뺤닔媛 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븯쑝硫, 쉶蹂듦린뿉뒗 湲곗긽깭 媛믪쑝濡 룎븘삤뒗 寃껋쓣 愿李고븯떎(time effect p<0.001) (Table 2). 洹몃윭굹 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂뿉꽌 깋븬諛뺢궗 以 긽셿룞留μ쓽 닔異뺢린 삁븬怨 룊洹 삁븬씠 넻젣 泥섏튂뿉 鍮꾪빐 뜙 利앷븯뒗 뼇긽쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 쉶蹂듦린뿉뒗 뜑 鍮좊Ⅴ寃 쉶蹂듬릺硫 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇨 굹궗떎(interaction effect p=0.043, p=0.041). 以묒떖룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬怨 룊洹 삁븬룄 긽셿룞留μ뿉꽌 蹂댁씤 諛섏쓳怨 쑀궗븳 寃쏀뼢쓣 굹깉쑝굹 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븯吏 븡븯떎(p=0.054). 洹몃윭굹 몢 泥섏튂 媛 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳 젙룄瑜 鍮꾧탳빐 蹂 寃곌낵, 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂뒗 넻젣 泥섏튂뿉 鍮꾪빐 긽셿룞留λ퓧留 븘땲씪 以묒떖룞留μ쓽 닔異뺢린 삁븬쓣 뜙 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(Fig. 2).

Table 2 . Effects of acute aerobic exercise on cardiovascular reactivity during CPT and recovery

VariableTrialBaselineCPTRecoveryp-value


30 sec120 secTimeTrialInteraction
HR (beats/min)AE73±375±370±269±2<0.0010.001<0.001
CON57±268±358±259±2
bSBP (mmHg)AE113±2130±4118±3114±2<0.0010.7040.043
CON110±2132±3116±3115±2
bDBP (mmHg)AE73±290±378±272±2<0.0010.8170.071
CON72±192±276±274±2
cSBP (mmHg)AE98±2117±4103±398±2<0.0010.3770.054
CON97±2120±3103±3100±2
cDBP (mmHg)AE74±292±379±274±2<0.0010.9310.207
CON73±193±277±275±2

Values are presented as mean±standard error of mean.

CPT: cold pressor test, HR: heart rate, AE: aerobic exercise, Con: control, SBP: systolic blood pressure, DBP: diastolic blood pressure, bSBP: brachial SBP, bDBP: brachial DBP, cSBP: central SBP, cDBP: central DBP.



Fig. 2. Blood pressure reactivity and recovery in response to cold pressor test (CPT). CPT is calculated as the change of (A) brachial systolic blood pressure (bSBP), (B) brachial diastolic blood pressure (bDBP), (C) central SBP (cSBP), and (D) central DBP (cDBP) from during CPT to baseline. Rec-30 and Rec-120 are calculated as the change of bSBP, bDBP, cSBP, and cDBP from during recovery (30 sec and 120 sec) to baseline. *p<0.05 compared to aerobic exercise (AE).
怨 李

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨쇰 븣븘蹂닿퀬옄 븯떎. 留먯큹룞留 삁븬怨 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 紐⑤몢 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤빐 利앷븯쑝硫, 쉶蹂듦린뿉 湲곗긽깭 媛믪쑝濡 룎븘솕떎. 洹몃윭굹, 쑀궛냼 슫룞 泥섏튂뒗 넻젣 泥섏튂뿉 鍮꾪빐 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤빐 利앷릺뒗 긽셿룞留 諛 以묒떖룞留μ쓽 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 紐⑤몢 셿솕떆耳곕떎. 씠윭븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰뒗 쑀궛냼 슫룞뿉 뵲瑜 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇨 留먯큹룞留λ퓧留 븘땲씪 以묒떖룞留 삁븬뿉꽌룄 굹궃떎뒗 궗떎쓣 젣떆븷 닔 엳떎. 씠뒗 씪쉶꽦 쑀궛냼 슫룞 썑 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕 愿젴맂 긽셿룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬 諛섏쓳씠 셿솕맂떎뒗 꽑뻾뿰援 寃곌낵뱾怨 씪移섑븯뒗 寃껋씠硫, 뜑슧씠 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 젣떆븳 몢 렪쓽 꽑뻾뿰援 寃곌낵룄 씪移섑븳떎16,17. 洹몃윭굹 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 룞뼇씤쓣 긽쑝濡 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕떆궓떎뒗 궗떎쓣 寃利앺븳 泥 踰덉㎏ 뿰援щ씪뒗 젏뿉꽌 洹 뿰援ъ쟻 媛移섍 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곹븳떎.

洹몃룞븞 뿬윭 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 怨쇰룄븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕떆궓떎怨 젣떆븯쑝硫12,13, 씠윭븳 슚怨쇰뒗 遺遺 留먯큹룞留 삁븬쓣 넻빐 利앸챸릺뿀떎. Ebbesen 벑10 60–120遺꾧컙쓽 씪떆쟻 以묎컯룄 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 留먯큹룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯떎. 삉븳 Yoon 벑19 씪떆쟻 빆꽦 슫룞씠 깋븬諛뺢궗뿉 븳 떖삁愿 옱諛섏쓳(긽셿룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬)쓣 셿솕떆궓떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎. Crews Landers20뒗 硫뷀 遺꾩꽍뿉꽌 泥대젰(fitness) 닔以씠 넂쓣닔濡 떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 긽셿룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇨 뜑 겕떎怨 젣떆븯떎. Hamer 벑13쓽 硫뷀 遺꾩꽍 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 씪쉶꽦 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 긽셿룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 빟 4 mmHg 젙룄 셿솕븷 닔 엳떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯쑝硫, 슫룞떆媛꾩씠 湲몄닔濡 셿솕 슚怨쇰뒗 뜑 겕寃 굹궃떎뒗 궗떎쓣 솗씤븯떎. 洹몃윭굹 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 30遺꾧컙쓽 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓣 넻빐꽌룄 꽑뻾뿰援ъ 쑀궗븳 젙룄쓽 긽셿룞留 닔異뺢린 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕슚怨(–4.13 mmHg)瑜 솗씤븯떎. 뜑슧씠 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 깋븬諛뺢궗 吏곹썑 利앷븳 긽셿룞留 삁븬쓣 鍮좊Ⅴ寃 쉶蹂듭떆궓떎뒗 異붽쟻씤 궗떎룄 븣 닔 엳뿀떎. 씠윭븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 넗濡 蹂 븣, 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 諛 빆꽦 슫룞쑝濡 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 留먯큹룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 湲곕븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠硫, 鍮꾨줉 슫룞웾씠 利앷븷닔濡 뜑 겙 슚怨쇰 蹂댁씠吏留, 30遺꾧컙쓽 쑀궛냼 슫룞쑝濡쒕룄 留먯큹룞留 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇰 湲곕븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

以묒떖룞留 삁븬 떖옣 二쇰 삁븬쑝濡 떖옣怨 뇤, 洹몃━怨 肄⑺뙠 媛숈 二쇱슂 옣湲(target organ)뿉 吏곸젒쟻씤 遺븯瑜 二쇱뼱 넀긽쓣 엯옄 닔 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉 긽셿룞留 삁븬蹂대떎 떖삁愿吏덊솚 諛쒖깮쓣 뜑 옒 삁痢≫븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎15. 씠윭븳 젏뿉꽌 理쒓렐 以묒떖룞留 삁븬쓽 엫긽쟻 쓽誘몄 愿由ъ쓽 以묒슂꽦씠 媛뺤“릺怨 엳떎14. 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 以묒떖룞留 삁븬쓣 궙異곗떎뒗 꽑뻾뿰援щ뒗 떎닔 엳쑝굹21,22, 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨쇰 洹쒕챸븳 뿰援щ뒗 留ㅼ슦 遺議깊븯떎. Milatz 벑16 32紐낆쓽 嫄닿컯븳 궓꽦쓣 긽쑝濡 60遺꾧컙 옄쟾嫄 뿉瑜닿퀬硫뷀꽣瑜 씠슜븯뿬 理쒕 궛냼꽠痍⑤웾 45% 닔以뿉꽌 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓣 吏꾪뻾븯怨 60遺 썑뿉 깋븬諛뺢궗瑜 떎떆븯뿬 以묒떖룞留 닔異뺢린 諛 솗옣湲 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯떎(–4.8/–2.8 mmHg). 떎瑜 슫룞媛뺣룄瑜 쟻슜븳 룞씪븳 뿰援 洹몃9쓽 異붽쟻씤 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 씠 鍮꾩듂븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 愿李고븯떎17. 씠뱾 怨좉컯룄 씤꽣踰 슫룞쓽 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇰 愿李고븯湲 쐞빐 嫄닿컯븳 궓꽦 39紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 理쒕 듃 98%濡 怨좉컯룄 씤꽣踰 옄쟾嫄 슫룞(high-intensity interval exercise; 1遺×6쉶, 4遺 媛꾧꺽 珥 30遺)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 씠썑 60遺꾧컙 쑕떇쓣 痍⑦븯怨 吏꾪뻾븳 깋븬諛뺢궗뿉꽌 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 愿李고븯떎17. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 30遺꾧컙쓽 以묎컯룄 쑀궛냼 슫룞쑝濡 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯떎. 씠윭븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 넻빐 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 뵲瑜 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 蹂댁씤떎뒗 궗떎쓣 뜑슧 솗옣븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 듅엳, 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 떎떆븳 60遺꾧컙쓽 슫룞떆媛꾨낫떎 긽쟻쑝濡 吏㏃ 30遺꾩쓽 슫룞떆媛꾩쑝濡쒕룄 援먭컧떊寃 옄洹뱀뿉 븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 蹂댁씤떎뒗 궗떎 씎誘몃∼떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵濡 蹂 븣 씪씪 떊泥댄솢룞 理쒖냼 沅뚯옣웾씤 30遺꾩쓽 씪쉶꽦 슫룞留뚯쑝濡쒕룄 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븳떎怨 젣떆븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 洹몃윭굹 긽쟻쑝濡 吏㏃ 떆媛꾩쓽 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븳 뿰援щ뒗 留ㅼ슦 遺議깊븯硫, 슫룞떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨 젙룄瑜 吏곸젒쟻쑝濡 鍮꾧탳븳 뿰援щ뒗 뾾떎. 뵲씪꽌, 씠윭븳 뿰援ш껐怨쇰 솗옣븯怨 씪諛섑솕븯湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 떎뼇븳 슫룞 삎깭蹂(삁, 빆꽦 벑), 媛뺣룄 諛 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 셿솕 슚怨쇱뿉 븳 寃利 뿰援ш 異붽쟻쑝濡 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎. 삉븳 슫룞 썑 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 끂異쒕릺뒗 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇨 떎瑜닿린 븣臾몄뿉23 씠 愿젴맂 異붽 뿰援щ룄 븘슂븯떎.

援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤빐 利앷븯뒗 긽셿룞留 諛 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 셿솕떆궎뒗 湲곗쟾뿉 빐 紐낇솗븯寃 븣 닔뒗 뾾쑝굹, 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 꽕紐낇븯뒗 湲곗쟾 以 븯굹濡 슫룞 썑 삁븬 媛먯냼(post-exercise hypotension) 슚怨쇰 젣떆븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 깋븬諛뺢궗뒗 援먭컧떊寃쎄퀎瑜 솢꽦솕븯뿬 끂瑜댁뿉뵾꽕봽由(norepinephrine)쓽 遺꾨퉬 利앷瑜 쑀諛쒗븳떎. 씠뒗 삁愿쓽 α-븘뱶젅꼫吏 닔슜泥(α-adrenergic receptros)뿉 寃고빀븯뿬 留먯큹삁愿쓽 빆쓣 넂씠硫 삁븬쓣 긽듅떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎24. 諛섎㈃뿉, 슫룞 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 끂瑜댁뿉뵾꽕봽由 遺꾨퉬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺硫25, West 벑26쓽 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 쑀궛냼 슫룞 援먭컧떊寃쎌씠 솢꽦솕릺뿀쓣 븣쓽 삁愿 빆쓣 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼떆耳곕떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 슫룞 삁愿 씠셿怨 愿젴씠 엳뒗 β2 닔슜泥댁쓽 諛섏쓳룄瑜 넂뿬 삁愿 빆쓣 궙異붽퀬 援먭컧떊寃쎌쑝濡 씤븳 삁븬 利앷瑜 셿솕븷 닔 엳떎27. 삉 떎瑜 湲곗쟾쑝濡 슫룞쓽 湲곕뒫쟻 援먭컧떊寃 뙆愿(functional sympatholysis) 슚怨쇰 怨좊젮빐 蹂 닔 엳떎. 利, 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 삁愿 닔異 옉슜쓣 諛⑺빐븯뿬 삁븬 긽듅쓣 뼲젣뻽쓣 媛뒫꽦쓣 諛곗젣븷 닔 뾾쓣 寃껋씠떎. 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞 궛솕吏덉냼 빀꽦슚냼(nitirc oxide synthase)瑜 솢꽦솕븳떎28. 씠濡 깮꽦맂 궛솕吏덉냼뒗 삁愿쓽 룊솢洹쇨낵 궡뵾꽭룷뿉꽌 옉슜븯뿬 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 끂瑜댁뿉뵾꽕봽由곗쓽 α-븘뱶젅꼫吏 솢꽦솕瑜 뿭쟾떆耳 湲곕뒫쟻 援먭컧떊寃 뙆愿대 쑀諛쒗븳떎29. 洹몃윭굹 쑀궛냼 슫룞씠 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 利앷릺뒗 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕떆궎뒗 湲곗쟾뿉 빐꽌 異붽쟻씤 뿰援ш 븘슂븯떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉뒗 紐 媛吏 젣븳젏씠 엳떎. 泥 踰덉㎏濡 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 뿰냽쟻쑝濡 솗씤븯吏 븡怨 듅젙 떆젏쓽 삁븬留뚯쓣 痢≪젙(static measurement)븯떎. 留 떖諛뺤닔뿉 뵲瑜 삁븬 痢≪젙(beat-to-beat measurement) 쑀궛냼 슫룞 썑 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 뵲瑜 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓽 蹂솕瑜 蹂대떎 옄꽭븯寃 遺꾩꽍븷 닔 엳寃 븷 寃껋씠떎. 몢 踰덉㎏濡 嫄닿컯븳 꽦씤쓣 긽쑝濡 씪떆쟻 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 뵲瑜 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇰 솗씤븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 떎瑜 긽옄뱾뿉寃 씠윭븳 寃곌낵瑜 씪諛섑솕븯湲 뼱졄떎. 뵲씪꽌 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 끂씤 諛 湲고 吏덊솚씠 엳뒗 뵾뿕옄 벑쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援ш 븘슂븯硫, 듅엳 옣湲곗쟻씤 쑀궛냼 듃젅씠떇쓽 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 뵲瑜 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 셿솕 슚怨쇰 寃利앺븷 븘슂媛 엳떎. 꽭 踰덉㎏濡 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕濡 씤븳 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 깮由ъ쟻씤 뒪듃젅뒪 옄洹뱀씠 二쇱뼱吏뒗 깋븬諛뺢궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯떎30. 떖由ъ쟻씤 뒪듃젅뒪(씤꽣酉, 以 뿰꽕) 諛 씤吏쟻씤 뒪듃젅뒪(궛닠 뀒뒪듃, 뒪듃猷⑦봽 寃궗[Stroop task])뒗 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕 諛⑸쾿뿉 뵲씪 떎瑜 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 쑀諛쒗븷 닔룄 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 洹몃윭誘濡 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떎뼇븳 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕 솚寃 븯뿉꽌룄 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳 셿솕 슚怨쇨 굹굹뒗吏 솗씤븷 븘슂媛 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎.

씠윭븳 紐 媛吏 젣븳젏뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨, 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 쑀궛냼 슫룞쓽 援먭컧떊寃 솢꽦솕뿉 븳 留먯큹 諛 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕 슚怨쇰 뮮諛쏆묠븷 닔 엳뒗 뿰援щ씪뒗 젏뿉꽌 뿰援ъ쟻 媛移섍 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곹븳떎. 以묒떖룞留 삁븬씠 二쇱슂 옣湲 넀긽 諛 떖삁愿 吏덊솚怨 뜑 諛젒븳 뿰愿씠 엳떎뒗 젏뿉꽌, 쑀궛냼 슫룞 떎뼇븳 뒪듃젅뒪 긽솴쑝濡 씤븳 以묒떖룞留 삁븬 諛섏쓳쓣 셿솕떆耳 떖삁愿 궗嫄 諛쒖깮 쐞뿕쓣 媛먯냼떆궗 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: MJC, SYJ. Data curation: MJC, YWK, JIK, HJK. Formal analysis: MJC, YWK. Funding acquisition: SYJ. Methodology: MJC, YWK, JIK, HJK. Project administration: SYJ. Visualization: YWK. Writing뱋riginal draft: MJC, SYJ. Writing뱑eview & editing: MJC, SYJ.

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