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Effect of Forward and Backward Arm Extension Movement of Pilates Exercise Using Cadillac Instrument on Trunk Muscle Activity
Korean J Sports Med 2018;36:197-206
Published online December 1, 2018;
© 2018 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Jinryeong Kim, Sunghoon Hur, Kyungjun An, Songjune Kim, Jongsam Lee

Research Center for Exercise and Sport Science, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Korea
Correspondence to: Jongsam Lee
Research Center for Exercise and Sport Science, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea
Tel: +82-53-850-6083, Fax: +82-53-850-6989, E-mail:
Received July 12, 2018; Revised November 13, 2018; Accepted November 24, 2018.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: This study analyzed the muscle activity changes induced by motions of reaching forward and chest expansion that were examined from the bilateral muscles with rectus abdominis, external oblique, multifidus, and longissimus thoracic using Pilates cadillac instrument.
Methods: Nine young adult women, who have no musculoskeletal disorder and any of chronic diseases, were participated. Surface electromyography system was used for recording of all signals produced by muscles, and then normalized as percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). The paired t-test and repeated measures of analysis of variance was performed.
Results: Reaching-forward motion showed a higher muscle activity from non-dominant external oblique muscle than that of the chest-expansion motion. During both reaching-forward motion and chest-expansion motion, MVIC values collected from dominant side of external oblique muscle were shown a significantly lower than the values obtained from non-dominant side (p<0.05). Conversely, %MVIC values in external oblique muscle collected from dominant side showed a significantly higher than the values obtained from non-dominant side of the same oblique muscle (p<0.05). Reaching-forward motion was caused a higher %MVIC on non-dominant external oblique muscle than that of the chest-expansion motion (p<0.05). Regardless of dominant or non-dominant sides, external oblique muscle was shown the highest activation rate of all the other muscles during reaching forward action, and longissimus thoracic muscle was shown the highest activation rate of all the other muscles during chest expansion action.
Conclusion: Reaching-forward motion is suitable for activating an external oblique muscle, and chest-expansion motion is an effective enough in activating of longissimus thoracic muscle.
Keywords : Chest-expansion, Electromyography, Pilates, Reaching-forward, Trunk muscle
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