search for

Comparison of Lower Extremity Muscle Function and Proprioception According to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Taekwondo Demonstration Players
Korean J Sports Med 2019;37:171-177
Published online December 1, 2019;
© 2019 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Sang Il Han, Jae Keun Oh, Ki Jae Song

Laboratory of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Ki Jae Song
Laboratory of Sports Medicine, Korea National Sport University, 1239 Yangjae-daero, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05541, Korea
Received September 24, 2019; Revised October 24, 2019; Accepted October 31, 2019.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for injury prevention and rehabilitation program development of Taekwondo demonstration team by comparing lower extremity muscles function and proprioceptive senses of Taekwondo demonstration team with or without anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The subjects were ACL injured Taekwondo demonstration player group (ATD, n=13) who underwent ACL reconstruction and Kukkiwon Taekwondo demonstration player group (KTD, n=13) without injury history.
Methods: To evaluate the lower extremity muscles function, we measured the flexor-extensor muscle strength ratio and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee joint using a isokinetic muscle strength measuring device. In order to investigate the proprioceptive sensory function, position sense, and threshold to detection of passive motion was using a isokinetic muscle strength measuring device. The experiment was conducted on average 26 months after surgery.
Results: The results of this study are as follows. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the knee joint flexor-extensor ratio. But there was a significant difference in Knee joint flexion and extension strength between two groups at an angular velocity of 60째/sec, 180째/sec, and 300째/sec. and KTD group was higher than ATD groups (p=0.014, p=0.001, p=0.029, p=0.005, p=0.043, p=0.041, respectively). There was no significant difference between the two groups in the proprioceptive sensory test.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the normal flexor to extensor ratio (50%70%), But it was close to the injury risk level. Therefore, the training program for the improvement of the muscle strength and the imbalance of the strength of the lower extremity muscle function should be performed in both groups.
Keywords : Anterior cruciate ligament, Lower extremity function, Proprioception, Taekwondo
  1. Kukkiwon. Kukkiwon셲 official website [Internet]. Seoul (KR): Kukkiwon; 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 7].
  2. World Taekwondo Federation. World Taekwondo Federation셲 official website [Internet]. Seoul (KR): World Taekwondo Federation; 2018 [cited 2019 Nov 7].
    Available from:
  3. Lee YJ, Shin MY. A study on the sports injuries of University Taekwondo demonstration team. Taekwondo J Kukkiwon 2014;5:119-38.
  4. Kim JS. The exploration of factors causing injuries in Taekwondo demonstration. Korea J Sport 2018;16:709-17.
  5. Park J B, K im S D, Y im D S, Jung HD. A theoretical understanding and practical establishment of the KyeokPa of Taekwondo: the view focused on organic harmony and motion of body and mind. Korea Sports Res 2006;17:691-702.
  6. Yoon SW. Anterior cruciate ligament damage and rehabilitation exercise. Sport Sci 2002;80:21-9.
  7. Kvist J. Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament injury. Sports Med 2004;34:269-80.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Stillman BC, McMeeken JM. The role of weightbearing in the clinical assessment of knee joint position sense. Aust J Physiother 2001;47:247-53.
  9. Kim DK, Park WH. Knee muscle strength after revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: comparison primary ACL reconstruction. Korean J Sports Med 2016;34:72-7.
  10. Kim EK. The effexts of proprioceptive exercise and isokinetic exercise on function of knee joint anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Sports Korean Res 2007;15:479-88.
  11. Buschbacher RM, Prahlow ND, Dave SJ. Sports medicine and rehabilitation: a sport-specific approach. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
  12. Croisier JL, Ganteaume S, Binet J, Genty M, Ferret JM. Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: a prospective study. Am J Sports Med 2008;36:1469-75.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Dvir Z. Isokinetics: muscle testing, interpretation, and clinical applications. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2004.
  14. Boling MC, Bolgla LA, Mattacola CG, Uhl TL, Hosey RG. Outcomes of a weight-bearing rehabilitation program for patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87:1428-35.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Cha YN, Oh JK. Difference of lower extremity, trunk muscle strength, balance ability and proprioception among Korea National Taekwondo demonstration player, competition player and trainee. Sport Sci 2016;33:175-84.
  16. Barrack RL, Lund PJ, Skinner HB. Knee joint proprioception revisited. J Sport Rehabil 1994;3:18-42.
  17. Mir SM, Hadian MR, Talebian S, Nasseri N. Functional assessment of knee joint position sense following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br J Sports Med 2008;42:300-3.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Kim JK, Jang JH. Differences in the recovery of muscular function in knee joint according to application time of exercise rehabilitation program after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Korea J Sports Sci 2012;21:1045-58.
  19. An KO, Oak JS, Park WY, Kim JG, Yang SJ. Gender differences in the effect of rehabilitive exercise program during 24weeks after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Korean J Sport Sci 2013;24:195-203.
  20. Cho WS, Seol ES, Kim MY, Ahn HS, Ji HC. The results of sports rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Korean Sports Med 2005;23:241-5.
  21. Choi HS, Shin YA. Changes of muscular strength and balance ability after rehabilitation programme related with graft choice in ACL reconstruction. Korean J Phys Educ 2012;5:429-40.
  22. Huh MD, Lee KY. The effect of recovered isokinetic training after ACL in adult. Korean Soc Sports Sci 2009;18:1115-25.
  23. Ahn NY, Lee WJ, Kim KJ. The influence of isokinetic muscle function of knee joint in knee injury. J Coach Dev 2013;15:96-104.
  24. Oh S J, Y ang SJ, H a JK, Seo JG, Choi J Y, Kim JG. The effectiveness of joint position sense test in evaluating the proprioceptive function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Korean J Sports Med 2011;29:83-8.
  25. Kim DK, Park WH. Proprioceptive and strength comparison of remnant preserved versus conventional anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Korean J Sports Med 2011;29:99-104.
  26. Takarada Y, Takazawa H, Ishii N. Applications of vascular occlusion diminish disuse atrophy of knee extensor muscles. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000;32:2035-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  27. Lee GJ, Kim BR, Kim JT, Lim IS. The effects of exercise rehabilitation program during 12 weeks after ACL reconstruction on the function index, muscle activation, and agonist/ntagonist ratio in the knee joint. Korean J Phys Educ 2013;52:483-94.
  28. Palmieri-Smith RM, Thomas AC, Wojtys EM. Maximizing quadriceps strength after ACL reconstruction. Clin Sports Med 2008;27:405-24.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  29. Carter ND, Jenkinson TR, Wilson D, Jones DW, Torode AS. Joint position sense and rehabilitation in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee. Br J Sports Med 1997;31:209-12.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  30. Corrigan JP, Cashman WF, Brady MP. Proprioception in the cruciate deficient knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1992;74:247-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  31. Angoules AG, Mavrogenis AF, Dimitriou R, et al. Knee proprioception following ACL reconstruction: a prospective trial comparing hamstrings with bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Knee 2011;18:76-82.
    Pubmed CrossRef