The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine

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Table. 3.

Table. 3.

Multiple linear regression for relative handgrip strength according to serum uric acid, stratified by age, BMI, and health-related factors

Variable Male Female


Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend p for interaction Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p for trend p for interaction
Age (yr)
<50 Ref −0.05* (−0.86 to 0.00) −0.13* (−0.17 to −0.09) −0.19* (−0.23 to −0.15) <0.001 0.055 Ref −0.03*(−0.06 to −0.01) −0.04*(−0.06 to −0.01) −0.10**(−0.13 to −0.08) <0.001 0.264
≥50 Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.02) −0.06*(−0.09 to −0.02) −0.07* (−0.10 to −0.03) <0.001 Ref −0.01(−0.04 to 0.01) −0.05*(−0.07 to −0.03) −0.08*(−0.11 to −0.06) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2)
≥25 Ref −0.02 (−0.06 to 0.02) −0.04*(−0.08 to 0.00) −0.10* (−0.14 to −0.06) <0.001 0.085 Ref 0.02(−0.02 to 0.05) −0.02(−0.05 to 0.01) −0.06*(−0.08 to −0.03) <0.001 0.214
<25 Ref −0.05* (−0.09 to 0.02) −0.10*(−0.13 to −0.06) −0.10* (−0.13 to −0.06) <0.001 Ref −0.02*(−0.04 to −0.01) −0.04*(−0.06 to −0.02) −0.07*(−0.09 to −0.05) <0.001
Hypertension
Yes Ref −0.04 (−0.08 to 0.01) −0.11*(−0.15 to −0.06) −0.12* (−0.17 to −0.07) <0.001 0.081 Ref −0.03*(−0.05 to −0.01) −0.04*(−0.06 to −0.02) −0.10*(−0.12 to −0.08) <0.001 0.294
No Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.02) −0.10*(−0.13 to −0.07) −0.17* (−0.21 to −0.67) <0.001 Ref −0.02(−0.04 to 0.02) −0.06*(−0.10 to −0.03) −0.11* (−0.14 to −0.08) <0.001
Diabetes
Yes Ref −0.07* (−0.12 to −0.01) −0.13*(−0.20 to −0.06) −0.13* (−0.21 to −0.06) 0.003 0.728 Ref 0.00(−0.06 to 0.05) −0.04(−0.10 to 0.01) −0.08*(−0.13 to −0.03) 0.001 0.744
No Ref −0.04* (−0.08 to −0.01) −0.10*(−0.13 to −0.07) −0.16* (−0.19 to −0.12) <0.001 Ref −0.03*(−0.05 to −0.01) −0.05*(−0.07 to −0.03) −0.11*(−0.13 to −0.09) <0.001
Hyperlipidemia
Yes No −0.06 (−0.12 to −0.01) −0.11*(−0.16 to −0.06) −0.13* (−0.19 to −0.08) <0.001 0.549 Ref 0.00(−0.04 to 0.03) −0.02(−0.05 to 0.01) −0.07*(−0.10 to −0.04) <0.001 0.258
No Ref −0.04* (−0.07 to −0.01) −0.10*(−0.13 to −0.07) −0.16* (−0.19 to −0.12) <0.001 Ref −0.03*(−0.05 to −0.01) −0.06*(−0.08 to −0.04) −0.11*(−0.14 to −0.09) <0.001
Smoking
Yes Ref −0.02 (−0.06 to 0.03) −0.09*(−0.13 to −0.05) −0.13* (−0.18 to −0.09) 0.033 0.558 Ref 0.09(0.00 to 0.19) 0.08(−0.01 to 0.16) 0.02(−0.07 to 0.10) 0.758 0.006
No Ref −0.06* (−0.10 to −0.03) −0.11*(−0.14 to −0.08) −0.17* (−0.21 to −0.13) <0.001 Ref −0.03*(−0.05 to −0.01) −0.05*(−0.07 to −0.04) −0.11*(−0.13 to −0.09) <0.001
Alcohol
Yes Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.01) −0.09* (−0.12 to −0.06) −0.15* (−0.19 to −0.12) <0.001 0.524 Ref −0.03(−0.05 to 0.00) −0.04*(−0.07 to −0.02) −0.10*(−0.12 to −0.07) <0.001 0.803
No Ref −0.05* (−0.11 to 0.00) −0.14* (−0.20 to −0.08) −0.16* (−0.23 to −0.10) <0.001 Ref −0.03(−0.05 to 0.00) −0.05*(−0.08 to −0.03) −0.11*(−0.13 to −0.09) <0.001
Adequate physical activity
Yes Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.01) −0.09* (−0.13 to −0.06) −0.14* (−0.18 to 0.10) <0.001 0.506 Ref −0.03*(−0.06 to 0.00) −0.05*(−0.08 to −0.03) −0.11*(−0.14 to −0.08) <0.001 0.890
No Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.01) −0.11* (−0.15 to −0.07) −0.17* (−0.21 to −0.13) <0.001 Ref −0.02*(−0.04 to 0.00) −0.04*(−0.06 to −0.02) −0.10*(−0.12 to −0.07) <0.001
Adequate resistance exercise
Yes Ref −0.03 (−0.07 to 0.02) −0.05* (−0.10 to −0.01) −0.13* (−0.18 to −0.08) <0.001 0.938 Ref −0.02(−0.06 to 0.02) −0.02(−0.06 to 0.02) −0.07*(−0.12 to −0.03) 0.003 0.952
No Ref −0.05* (−0.09 to −0.02) −0.12* (−0.15 to −0.09) −0.16* (−0.20 to −0.13) <0.001 Ref −0.03*(−0.04 to −0.01) −0.05*(−0.07 to −0.03) −0.11*(−0.13 to −0.09) <0.001
Adequate protein intake
Yes Ref −0.04* (−0.07 to −0.01) −0.09* (−0.12 to −0.05) −0.15* (−0.18 to −0.11) <0.001 0.271 Ref −0.02(−0.04 to 0.00) −0.04(−0.06 to −0.02) −0.09*(−0.12 to −0.07) <0.001 0.466
No Ref −0.05 (−0.10 to 0.00) −1.13* (−0.19 to −0.08) −0.14* (−0.19 to −0.09) <0.001 Ref −0.02(−0.05 to 0.00) −0.05(−0.08 to 0.02) −0.11(−0.14 to −0.08) <0.001
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)
≥60 Ref −0.05* (−0.08 to −0.02) −0.10* (−0.13 to −0.07) −0.15* (−0.18 to −0.12) <0.001 0.078 Ref −0.03*(−0.04 to −0.01) −0.05*(−0.07 to −0.03) −0.10*(−0.12 to −0.08) <0.001 0.135
<60 Ref 0.07 (−0.07 to 0.20) −0.06 (−0.19 to 0.06) 0.01 (−0.12 to 0.15) 0.696 Ref −0.10(−0.27 to 0.07) −0.09(−0.23 to 0.05) −0.18*(−0.29 to −0.08) 0.003

Values are presented as β coefficients (95% confidence interval) for relative grip strength.

Ref: reference, BMI: body mass index, eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration ratio.

Adjusted for age, income, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, arthritis, smoking status, alcohol intake, daily intake (kcal/day), protein intake (g/day), physical activity and resistance exercise (day/week), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (mg/L), and eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2).

Quartiles of serum uric acid (mg/dL): Q1, the 1st quartile (5.0 in males and 3.7 in females); Q2, the 2nd quartile (5.1−5.8 in males and 3.8−4.3 in females); Q3, the 3rd quartile (5.9−6.7 in males and 4.4−4.9 in females); Q4, the 4th quartile (6.8 in males and 5.0 in females).

*Significant value.

Korean J Sports Med 2022;40:1-11 https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2022.40.1.1
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