The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine

Indexed in /covered by CAS, KoreaScience & DOI/Crossref:eISSN 2288-6028   pISSN 1226-3729

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Summary of studies on outcomes of exercise on long COVID symptoms and physical function

Study Year No. of subjects Training duration (wk) Result
Del Valle et al.55 2022 20 8 Exertional dyspnea and fatigue ↓
Exercise capacity (6MWD) ↑
Cardiac function (HRR) ↑
Hayden et al.51 2021 108 3 Dyspnea (mMRC, NRS) ↓
Fatigue (BFI) ↓
Anxiety (GAD-7) ↓
Depression (PHQ-9) ↓
Exercise capacity (6MWD) ↑
Quality of life (EQ5D5L) ↑
Hockele et al.57 2022 29 8 Dyspnea (mMRC) ↓
Functional status (PCFS) ↑
Exercise capacity (6MWD) ↑
Physical function (TUGT) ↑
Pulmonary function (FVC, FEV1, MIP, MEP) ↑
Nopp et al.53 2022 58 6 Dyspnea (mMRC) ↓
Exertional dyspnea (Borg dyspnea) ↓
Fatigue (FAS) ↓
Functional status (PCFS) ↑
Exercise capacity (6MWD) ↑
Pulmonary function (FEV1, DLCO, MIP) ↑
Quality of life (EQ5D) ↑

Long COVID: post-acute sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019, 6MWD: 6-minute walking distance, HRR: heart rate recovery, mMRC: modified medical research council dyspnea scale, NRS: numeric rating scale, BFI: brief fatigue inventory, GAD-7: generalized anxiety disorder-7, PHQ-9: patient health questionnaire-9, EQ5D5L: Euro-quality of life-5 dimension 5 level, PCFS: post-COVID functional status, TUGT: timed up and go test, FVC: forced voluntary capacity, FEV1: 1 second-forced expiratory volume, MIP: maximal inspiratory pressure, MEP: maximal expiratory pressure, FAS: fatigue assessment scale, DLCO: diffusion capacity of lung for carbon dioxide, EQ5D: Euro-quality of life-5 dimension.

Korean J Sports Med 2023;41:119-29
© 2023 Korean J Sports Med