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The Characteristics of Nonmotorized and Electric Kickboard Injury: Retrospective Analysis from a Single Tertiary Institution
Korean J Sports Med 2021;39:154-159
Published online December 1, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2021.39.4.154
© 2021 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Du-Han Kim, Ki-Cheor Bae, Beom-Soo Kim, Ji-Hoon Kim, Byung-Chan Choi, Chul-Hyun Cho

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
Correspondence to: Chul-Hyun Cho
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 1035 Dalgubeol-daero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu 42601, Korea
Tel: +82-53-258-7924, Fax: +82-53-258-4773, E-mail: oscho5362@dsmc.or.kr
Received August 13, 2021; Revised November 11, 2021; Accepted November 18, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: Recently, there has been an increasing number of kickboard injuries at our orthopedic clinic and emergency room. Therefore, this study is to identify the incidence and characteristics of nonmotorized and electric kickboard injuries with emergency room surveillance.
Methods: Between August 2018 and January 2021, patients who visited the emergency room of a tertiary hospital with nonmotorized and electric kickboard injuries were included. The incidence, severity, and characteristics were analyzed.
Results: There were a total of 204 patients who visited our emergency room during the study period. There were 139 nonmotorized kickboard injuries with 115 minor, 11 moderate, and 13 severe injuries. Fifty-six electric kickboard injuries were 47 minor, one moderate, and eight severe injuries. The incidence of injury depended on-site and was as follows: face and head (63.7%), upper extremity, lower extremity, abdomen and chest, and spine.
Conclusion: Face and head injuries were the most common injuries in body part, while minor trauma was the most common diagnosis. With the increasing incidence of kickboard injuries, we should be more mindful that protective equipment and safety rules may be necessary.
Keywords : Kickboard injury, Trauma, Injury, Incidence, Severity
꽌 濡

젅 솢룞뿉 븳 愿떖씠 넂븘吏怨 룄떆 븞뿉꽌쓽 씠룞 닔떒 諛⑸쾿씠 蹂솕븿뿉 뵲씪 닔룞 諛 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶쓽 씠슜 삉븳 뒛뼱굹怨 엳떎. 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶뒗 二쇰줈 냼븘굹 泥냼뀈뿉寃뚯꽌 씠슜 鍮덈룄媛 넂뜲, 냽룄쓽 젣뼱媛 뼱졄怨 빖뱾쓣 議곗옉빐빞 븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 珥덈벑븰깮 씠긽뿉寃 沅뚯옣릺怨 엳쑝굹 援궡뿉꽌뒗 쑀移섏썝깮뱾룄 留롮씠 씠슜븯怨 엳뼱 븞쟾궗怨좉 留롮씠 諛쒖깮븯怨 엳떎. 뻾젙븞쟾遺 븳援냼鍮꾩옄썝쓽 뼱由곗씠 븞쟾궗怨 遺꾩꽍 寃곌낵뿉 쓽븯硫 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 궗怨좊뒗 2015뀈 184嫄댁뿉꽌 2019뀈뿉뒗 852嫄댁쑝濡 媛뙆瑜닿쾶 利앷븯뿬, 씠슜옄쓽 媛곷퀎븳 二쇱쓽媛 븘슂븿쓣 븣 닔 엳떎1.

쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶(electric kickboard)瑜 룷븿븯뿬 쟾룞 쑀(wheel), 꽭洹몄썾씠(segway) 벑 븳 궗엺씠 怨 씠룞븷 닔 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡쒖꽌 쟾湲 뿉꼫吏濡 옉룞븯뒗 寃쎈웾솕, 냼삎솕맂 媛쒖씤 씠룞닔떒쓣 띁뒪꼸 紐⑤퉴由ы떚(personal mobility)씪怨 븳떎. 씠 以 젅 솢룞뿉 援븳릺뼱 궗슜릺뜕 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶뒗 理쒓렐 뒪留덊듃룿 븷뵆由ъ씠뀡쓣 씠슜븯뿬 뿬븯硫 릺뒗 怨듭쑀 꽌鍮꾩뒪媛 媛쒕컻릺硫댁꽌 洹 씠슜씠 湲됯꺽븯寃 뒛怨 엳떎. 룄떆솕濡 씤븳 異쒗눜洹 떆媛꾩쓽 援먰넻 샎옟, 二쇱감 怨듦컙쓽 遺議 벑쓣 빐寃고븯湲 쐞븳 諛⑹븞 以묒쓽 븯굹濡 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶뒗 李⑥꽭 援먰넻 닔떒쑝濡쒖꽌쓽 뿭븷씠 뜑 利앸맆 寃껋쑝濡 삁긽맂떎2,3. 븯吏留 씠윭븳 湲됯꺽븳 蹂솕뿉 鍮꾪빐 븞쟾 슫뻾뿉 愿븳 踰뺢낵 젣룄쓽 솗由 諛 媛쒖꽑씠 썝솢엳 吏꾪뻾릺吏 븡怨 엳怨, 理쒓퀬 냽룄媛 泥닿컧긽 鍮좊Ⅴ吏 븡븘 씠슜옄뱾쓽 븞쟾뿉 븳 씤떇 삉븳 遺議깊븯떎. 냼鍮꾩옄쐞빐媛먯떆떆뒪뀥(Consumer Injury Surveillance System)뿉 젒닔맂 蹂닿퀬뿉 쓽븯硫 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶瑜 룷븿븳 띁뒪꼸 紐⑤퉴由ы떚 愿젴 궗怨좊뒗 2019뀈뿉 鍮꾪븯뿬 2020뀈뿉 135%굹 利앷븯떎4.

뿬윭 援궡 떎깭議곗궗뿉꽌 떊怨좊맂 닔룞 諛 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽 鍮덈룄瑜 吏묎퀎븯뒗뜲, 湲됯꺽븳 利앷뿉 뵲瑜 二쇱쓽媛 븘슂븯떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯怨 엳쑝굹 諛쒖깮鍮덈룄뿉 뵲瑜 넀긽 쑀삎뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 븘吏 誘몃퉬븳 떎젙씠떎. 뵲씪꽌 씠뿉 옄뱾 쓳湲됱떎쓣 諛⑸Ц븳 솚옄 옄猷뚮 諛뷀깢쑝濡 닔룞 諛 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓽 듅吏 諛 쑀삎뿉 븯뿬 議곗궗빐 蹂닿퀬옄 븯떎.

뿰援щ갑踰

떒씪 3李 蹂묒썝쓽 쓳湲됱떎뿉 2018뀈 8썡遺꽣 2021뀈 1썡源뚯 18媛쒖썡媛 諛⑸Ц븳 솚옄뱾쓽 쓽臾닿린濡앹쓣 썑뼢쟻쑝濡 遺꾩꽍븯뿬 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽쓽 쑀삎쓣 吏묎퀎븯떎. 넀긽쓽 쑀삎 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶, 옄룞 궏蹂대뱶, 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 蹂댄뻾옄 궗怨좊줈 援щ퀎븯쑝硫, 넀긽쓽 遺쐞뒗 븞硫대 諛 癒몃━, 긽吏, 븯吏, 泥숈텛(紐 諛 뿀由), 媛뒾 諛 諛곕줈 겕寃 5媛吏濡 援щ퀎븯뿬 吏묎퀎븯떎.

넀긽쓽 以묒쬆룄(severity)뒗 吏꾨떒紐낃낵 諛⑹궗꽑 寃궗 諛 떊泥 吏꾩같 湲곕줉뿉꽌 쇅긽쓽 벑湲됱쓣 遺꾨쪟븯怨, 洹 湲곗 媛꾨왂솕 긽빐 湲곗(abbreviated injury scale, AIS) 以 긽빐 젙룄 6떒怨꾨 궗슜븯뿬 鍮꾧탳븯떎5. 1떒怨꾨뒗 醫뚯긽, 뿴긽, 諛뺤긽, 떒닚 뿼醫, 2떒怨꾨뒗 二쇱슂 愿젅쓽 뿼醫, 옣怨⑥쓽 鍮꾩쟾쐞 怨⑥젅, 3떒怨꾨뒗 쟾쐞꽦 怨⑥젅, 4떒怨꾨뒗 떎諛쒖꽦 룓뇙꽦 怨⑥젅, 5떒怨꾨뒗 떎諛쒖꽦 媛쒕갑꽦 怨⑥젅, 6떒怨꾨뒗 궗留앹뿉 씠瑜대뒗 怨⑥젅濡 援щ퀎븯떎. 궡썝븳 紐⑤뱺 솚옄뿉꽌 4떒怨 씠긽쓽 떖媛곹븳 넀긽 뾾뿀湲 븣臾몄뿉 3떒怨꾨줈 援щ텇븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 솚옄뿉寃 븘슂뻽뜕 移섎즺쓽 떒怨꾨뒗 寃쏀븳 移섎즺(빟臾 移섎즺, 떒닚 遊됲빀, 遺紐 怨좎젙) 以묓븳 移섎즺(엯썝 移섎즺, 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂)濡 援щ퀎븯떎. 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 怨꾨챸븰援 룞궛蹂묒썝쓽 Institutional Review Board濡쒕꽣 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븘 吏꾪뻾븯떎(No. 2021-05-077).

넻怨꾩쟻 寃利앹 IBM SPSS version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 씠슜븯떎. 룆由 몴蹂 T 寃젙怨 移댁씠 젣怨 寃젙쓣 씠슜븯쑝硫, 넀긽 듅吏 遺꾩꽍뿉뒗 Fisher exact test瑜, 移섎즺 諛⑸쾿 遺꾩꽍뿉뒗 Pearson chi-square test瑜 씠슜븯떎. p媛믪씠 0.05 誘몃쭔씪 븣 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒븯떎.

寃 怨

2018뀈 8썡遺꽣 2021뀈 1썡源뚯 18媛쒖썡媛 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 궗怨좊줈 쓳湲됱떎쓣 諛⑸Ц븳 궗엺 珥 204紐낆씠뿀怨, 궓옄 135紐, 뿬옄뒗 69紐낆씠뿀떎. 씠 以묒뿉꽌 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 궗怨좊뒗 139紐낆쑝濡 쟾泥 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓽 68.1%쓽 鍮덈룄瑜 蹂댁怨, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 궗怨좊뒗 56紐(27.5%), 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 蹂댄뻾옄 궗怨좊뒗 9紐(4.4%)씠뿀떎. 넀긽 遺꾨쪟蹂 援щ퀎뿉꽌 솚옄쓽 룊洹 굹씠뒗 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽 6.8꽭(±5.2), 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽 29.2꽭(±13.3), 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 蹂댄뻾옄 넀긽 47.9꽭(±30.5)濡 굹궗떎. 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽 遺遺 10꽭 씠븯뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븯쑝硫(95.7%), 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 諛 蹂댄뻾옄 넀긽 뿭떆 20꽭 씠븯쓽 뿰졊뿉꽌 49.2%濡 媛옣 넂寃 굹궗떎(Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. (A) The sex and age distribution of nonmotorized kickboard injuries. (B) Electronic kickboard and pedestrian injuries.

쇅긽쓽 以묒쬆룄뒗 AIS 넀긽 벑湲됱뿉 뵲씪 援щ퀎븯쓣 븣, 1떒怨꾨뒗 170紐, 2떒怨꾨뒗 12紐, 3떒怨꾨뒗 22紐낆쑝濡 遺遺 寃쎌쬆 넀긽씠뿀떎(Table 1). 넀긽쓽 遺쐞뒗 븞硫대 諛 癒몃━媛 63.7% (130紐)濡 媛옣 留롮븯쑝硫, 긽吏, 븯吏, 蹂듬 諛 쓨遺, 泥숈텛 닚꽌濡 留롮븯떎. 洹 以 蹂듬 諛 쓨遺 넀긽뿉꽌 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽怨 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽 媛꾩뿉 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠(2.2% vs. 8.9%, p=0.045)媛 엳뿀떎. 넀긽쓣 諛쏆 솚옄뱾 以 92.6% (189紐)뒗 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺, 遊됲빀닠 벑쓽 寃쏀븳 移섎즺媛 븘슂븯쑝硫, 엯썝씠굹 닔닠쟻 移섎즺媛 븘슂븯뜕 寃쎌슦뒗 7.4% (15紐)쑝濡 議곗궗릺뿀떎(Table 2). 썡蹂 諛쒖깮 鍮덈룄瑜 遺꾩꽍븯쓣 븣, 쟾泥 204紐 以 80.9% (165紐)媛 쇅遺 솢룞씠 利앷븯뒗 4썡뿉꽌 10썡 궗씠뿉 諛쒖깮븯떎.

Table 1 . Demographic data and the severity of injuries

CharacteristicNonmotorized kickboardElectronic kickboardPedestriansTotalp-value (nonmotorized vs. electronic)
No. of patients139569204
Age (yr)6.8±5.225.7±13.347.9±30.514.6±15.9<0.001*
Sex0.759
Male95373135
Female4419669
Abbreviated injury scale0.188
1115478170
2111012
313812
40000
50000
60000

Values are presented as number of patients or mean±standard deviation.

*Statistical significance.



Table 2 . Injury and treatment characteristics

CharacteristicNonmotorized kickboardElectronic kickboardPedestriansTotalp-value (nonmotorized vs. electronic)
Injury characteristics
Head and face943151300.130
Head30720.164
Face and teeth642430.751
Upper extremity32111440.704
Shoulder10500.767
Elbow16310.286
Forearm and hand6300.718
Lower extremity982190.095
Hip and pelvis001NA
Thigh100>0.999
Knee and lower leg6600.107
Foot and ankle2210.325
Vertebral column32050.626
Abdomen and chest35190.045*
Treatment0.215
Minor procedure127548189
Major procedure122115
Total139569204

Values are presented as number of patients.

NA: not applicable.

Medication, simple dressing, suture; admission treatment, operation.

*Statistical significance.


怨 李

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 쓳湲됱떎 諛⑸Ц 솚옄뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓽 鍮덈룄 諛 듅吏뺤쓣 議곗궗븯湲 쐞빐 떆뻾븯떎. 쁽옱 利앷븯怨 엳뒗 궏蹂대뱶 궗슜 愿젴 넀긽뿉 븳 援궡, 쇅쓽 蹂닿퀬뒗 留ㅼ슦 뱶臾 긽솴쑝濡, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽뿉 鍮꾪빐 룊洹 굹씠媛 썾뵮 궙븯쑝硫(6.8꽭 vs. 25.7꽭), 遺遺 議곗옉 誘몄닕뿉 쓽븳 꽆뼱吏먯쑝濡 諛쒖깮븯떎. 넀긽 遺쐞뒗 븞硫대 諛 몢遺 넀긽씠 63.7%濡 媛옣 넂寃 굹궗떎.

닔룞 궏蹂대뱶媛 2000뀈 씠썑遺꽣 꽑뭾쟻씤 씤湲곕 걣硫댁꽌, 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽 援궡, 쇅뿉꽌 냼븘‧泥냼뀈뿉寃 媛옣 鍮덈룄媛 넂 넀긽쓽 썝씤 以 븯굹媛 릺뿀떎6. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 10꽭 씠븯뿉꽌 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶쓽 넀긽씠 95% 씠긽쑝濡 굹궗뒗뜲, 洹 씠쑀濡 븰졊湲 븣 誘몄꽭슫룞 뒫젰씠 셿꽦릺뒗 떆湲곕줈 湲곌뎄뿉 븳 怨듯룷媛 쟻怨 샇湲곗떖怨 슃援ш 留롪린 븣臾몄쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. Nathanson 벑7 誘멸뎅뿉꽌 2011뀈 븳 빐 룞븞 諛쒖깮븳 뒪궎, 뒪끂슦蹂대뱶, 뒪耳씠듃蹂대뱶, 濡ㅻ윭뒪耳씠듃, 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 꽆뼱吏 넀긽뿉 븳 뿭븰 議곗궗瑜 떆뻾븯떎. 빐떦 썝씤쑝濡 쓳湲됱떎쓣 諛⑸Ц븳 솚옄 닔瑜 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵, 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶뒗 4踰덉㎏濡 留롮 넀긽씠 엳뼱 뒪궎蹂대떎룄 넂븯쑝硫, 17꽭 씠븯쓽 냼븘‧泥냼뀈쓣 긽쑝濡 븯쓣 븣뒗 뒪耳씠듃蹂대뱶 떎쓬쑝濡 2踰덉㎏濡 넂 넀긽씠 엳뿀뜕 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 諛앺吏 諛붿 媛숈씠, 닔긽 遺쐞 以 븞硫대 諛 癒몃━ 遺쐞쓽 넀긽 鍮꾩쑉씠 긽떦엳 넂寃 솗씤릺뿀뒗뜲, 궏蹂대뱶濡 씤븳 븞硫대 넀긽쓽 뿭븰 議곗궗뒗 援궡뿉꽌 Park 벑8뿉 쓽빐 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎. 理쒓렐 5뀈媛 븰蹂묒썝 쓳湲됱떎뿉 諛⑸Ц븳 븞硫대 넀긽 썝씤쓣 뒪룷痢 蹂꾨줈 遺꾩꽍븯뒗뜲, 洹 寃곌낵 궏蹂대뱶濡 씤븳 넀긽(8.3%) 궗씠겢(53.4%), 빞援(15.2%), 異뺢뎄(10.0%), 떖由ш린(8.3%) 떎쓬쑝濡 5踰덉㎏ 쓷븳 遺긽쑝濡 議곗궗릺뿀쑝硫, 異붽 遺꾩꽍뿉꽌 궏蹂대뱶濡 씤븳 넀긽 5뀈媛 쑀쓽誘명븯寃 利앷븯怨 엳뒗 쑀씪븳 넀긽쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. Gaines 벑9쓽 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶쓽 넀긽 쑀삎쓽 遺꾩꽍 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 癒몃━ 遺쐞媛 媛옣 넀긽 鍮꾩쑉씠 넂븯쑝硫(51.9%), 긽吏 諛 븯吏(40.7%), 蹂듬(7.4%), 쓨遺(3.7%) 닚쑝濡 씠踰 뿰援ъ 쑀궗븳 뙣꽩쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 넀긽쓽 젙룄(severity)뿉 愿븳 遺꾩꽍뿉꽌뒗, 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶뒗 諛쒕줈 異붿쭊젰쓣 뼸뼱 씠룞븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 냽 二쇳뻾씠 씠猷⑥뼱졇 寃쎌쬆 넀긽씠 遺遺꾩씠뿀쑝硫, 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺굹 遺紐 怨좎젙, 遊됲빀닠 벑쓽 떒닚 泥섏튂濡 移섎즺媛 媛뒫븳 寃쎌슦媛 留롮븯떎. Schalamon 벑10 궏蹂대뱶 쑀궗븳 냼븘‧泥냼뀈쓽 씠 닔떒씤 뒪耳씠듃蹂대뱶 넀긽 젙룄뿉 븳 鍮꾧탳 뿰援щ 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 뿰援 寃곌낵뿉 쓽븯硫, 뒪耳씠듃蹂대뱶쓽 寃쎌슦 tricky maneuver瑜 떆룄븯뒗 룞븞 넀긽씠 媛옣 留롮씠 諛쒖깮븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 떒닚븳 꽆뼱吏먯뿉 쓽븳 넀긽씠 留롮 궏蹂대뱶뿉 鍮꾪빐 怨⑥젅쓽 鍮꾩쑉씠 넂븯쑝硫(43% vs. 31%), 닔닠씠 븘슂븳 寃쎌슦룄 뒪耳씠듃蹂대뱶뿉꽌 쑀쓽誘명븯寃 뜑 넂븯떎(6.9% vs. 1.8%).

룄떆쓽 씤援 吏묒쨷쑝濡 씤븳 援먰넻泥댁쬆쓽 臾몄젣濡 뒪留덊듃룿 븷뵆由ъ씠뀡쓣 씠슜븳 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 怨듭쑀 꽌鍮꾩뒪媛 理쒓렐 二쇰ぉ諛쏆쑝硫댁꽌 룄떆 吏뿭뿉 怨듭쑀 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 떆옣씠 湲됯꺽엳 꽦옣븯怨 엳怨, 씠뿉 븳 궗怨 뿭떆 湲됯꺽엳 뒛怨 엳떎. Kobayashi 벑11 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 궗怨좊 떦븳 103紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 넀긽 쑀삎쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 蹂 뿰援ъ 쑀궗븳 寃곌낵瑜 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 닔긽 遺쐞濡 븞硫대 癒몃━ 遺쐞媛 44%濡 鍮꾩쑉씠 媛옣 넂븯쑝硫, 寃쎌쬆 넀긽씠 58%, 以묒쬆룄쓽 넀긽씠 36%濡 遺遺꾩쓣 李⑥뻽怨, 쟻洹뱀쟻씤 移섎즺媛 븘슂븳 以묒쬆 넀긽 6%떎. 異붽쟻씤 븞쟾 씤떇뿉 븳 議곗궗뿉꽌 궗怨 떦떆 뿬硫㏃쓣 궗슜븯怨 엳뿀뜕 씠슜옄뒗 2%뿉 遺덇낵뻽쓬쓣 吏쟻븯硫댁꽌, 씠슜옄뱾쓽 븞쟾뿉 븳 씤떇怨 踰뺤쟻 洹쒖젣쓽 솗由쎌씠 以묒슂븿쓣 媛뺤“븯떎11. 닔룞 諛 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 씠슜옄쓽 넀긽 쑀삎쓣 鍮꾧탳 遺꾩꽍븳 援궡 뿰援щ뒗 뾾뿀吏留, Blomberg 벑12 뜶留덊겕쓽 닔룄씤 肄뷀렂븯寃먯뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븳 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽 468삁(닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 323삁, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 112삁, 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 蹂댄뻾옄 궗怨 33삁)瑜 썑뼢쟻쑝濡 鍮꾧탳 遺꾩꽍븯떎. 洹 寃곌낵 諛뺤긽, 뿼醫, 뿴긽 벑쓽 寃쎌쬆 넀긽쓽 鍮꾩쑉씠 媛옣 넂븯쑝硫(닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 48.9%, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 26.8%), 怨⑥젅쓽 諛쒖깮 鍮꾩쑉룄 빟 10% (닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 9.6%, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 11.6%)濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎. 몢 援 媛 넀긽 쑀삎쓽 鍮꾧탳뿉꽌 뿴긽(19.5% vs. 44.6%) 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽뿉꽌, 諛뺤긽 諛 뿼醫(48.9% vs. 26.8%)뒗 닔룞 궏蹂대뱶 넀긽뿉꽌 뜑 넂 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎.

궏蹂대뱶뿉꽌 鍮덈룄媛 넂 넀긽쓽 듅吏뺢낵 寃쏀뼢쓣 愿李고븯硫 삁諛⑹콉쓣 닔由쏀븯뒗 뜲 룄씠 릺湲 븣臾몄뿉 씠뿉 븳 뿰援 諛 쟻슜씠 以묒슂븯떎怨 븷 닔 엳寃좊떎. 삁瑜 뱾뼱 꽆뼱吏硫댁꽌 븞硫 諛 癒몃━뿉 遺긽쓣 엯쓣 솗瑜좎씠 넂湲 븣臾몄뿉 냼븘뿉 엳뼱꽌 뿬硫 李⑹슜쓣 쓽臾댄솕븯怨, 李⑤줈媛 븘땶 怨녹뿉꽌留 씠슜븷 닔 엳룄濡 援먯쑁빐빞 븷 寃껋씠떎. 삉븳 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 씠슜 떆뿉뒗 諛섎뱶떆 븞硫 蹂댄샇(face shield)媛 엳뒗 뿬硫㏃쓣 李⑹슜븯룄濡 沅뚭퀬빐빞 븷 寃껋씠떎. 븳렪, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶쓽 궗怨 쐞뿕꽦 냽룄쓽 吏媛곴낵룄 愿怨꾧 엳떎13. 슫쟾옄뒗 슫쟾 以묒뿉 냽룄怨꾩쓽 媛앷쟻씤 젙蹂대낫떎 옄떊쓽 二쇨쟻씤 젙蹂대굹 媛먭컖뿉 쓽빐 뙋떒븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 냽룄瑜 怨쇱냼룊媛븯뒗 寃쏀뼢씠 엳뒗뜲, 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶쓽 寃쎌슦뿉룄 냽룄怨꾩쓽 쐞移섍 슫쟾옄쓽 떆빞媛곸뿉 留욎 븡븘 二쇳뻾 냽룄뿉 븳 吏媛곸 긽쟻쑝濡 몦媛먰빐吏꾨떎13. 씠뿉 븳 빐寃곗콉쑝濡, 젣븳 냽룄蹂대떎 鍮좊Ⅴ寃 二쇳뻾븷 떆 뒪留덊듃 썙移섎굹 뒪留덊듃 諛대뱶媛 吏꾨룞븯뿬 슫쟾옄뿉寃 珥됯컧 젙蹂대 젣떆븯뒗 諛⑸쾿 벑씠 젣떆릺뼱 뿰援щ릺怨 엳떎. 援먰넻踰뺢퇋쓽 媛쒖젙 諛 솗由쎈룄 궗쉶쟻쑝濡 以묒슂븳 怨쇱젣씠떎. 罹먮굹떎쓽 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 뿬硫 李⑹슜쓣 쓽臾댄솕븯뒗 踰뺤쓣 젣젙븳 썑뿉 궗슜옄媛 뿬硫㏃쓣 李⑹슜븯뒗 鍮꾩쑉씠 2諛 씠긽 利앷븯쑝硫, 뿬硫 李⑹슜援곗뿉꽌 몢寃쎈 넀긽 鍮꾩쑉씠 썾뵮 뜑 궙寃(19.3% vs. 42.6%) 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎14.

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 젣븳젏쑝濡쒕뒗 떒씪 3李 蹂묒썝 쓳湲됱떎뿉 諛⑸Ц븳 솚옄쓽 넻怨꾨 궗슜븯뿬 쟾泥 넀긽 솚옄瑜 몴븷 留뚰븳 닔瑜 蹂댁뿬以 닔 뾾떎뒗 寃껋씠떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 굹굹吏 븡 寃쎌쬆 넀긽 醫낇빀蹂묒썝蹂대떎 쟾臾몃퀝썝씠굹 1李 蹂묒썝뿉꽌 鍮꾩쑉씠 뜑 넂쓣 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 몢 踰덉㎏ 젣븳젏 넀긽쓽 以묒쬆룄 鍮꾧탳뿉 AIS瑜 궗슜븯뒗뜲, 씠 떆뒪뀥 솚옄쓽 솢젰吏뺥썑 뿰愿릺뒗 떖븳 넀긽源뚯 援щ퀎븯湲 쐞빐 留뚮뱾뼱吏 湲곗씠湲 븣臾몄뿉, 씪긽쟻쑝濡 諛쒖깮븯뒗 醫뚯긽, 뿼醫, 鍮꾩쟾쐞怨⑥젅 벑쓣 援щ퀎븯吏뒗 紐삵븳떎뒗 떒젏씠 엳뿀떎. 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽 옄룞李⑤굹 삤넗諛붿씠 궗怨좎 媛숈씠 怨좎냽 二쇳뻾 以묒뿉 諛쒖깮븯뒗 궗怨좉 븘땲湲 븣臾몄뿉 遺遺꾩쓽 넀긽씠 AIS 1–3떒怨꾨줈 굹궃 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷릺硫, 넀긽쓽 젙룄瑜 뜑 꽭諛븯寃 援щ퀎븷 닔 엳뒗 쇅긽 愿젴 벑湲(classification)씠 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎. 삉 떎瑜 젣븳젏쑝濡쒕뒗, 궗怨 湲곗쟾씠 쁺긽 遺꾩꽍씠 븘땶 湲곕줉 遺꾩꽍씠湲 븣臾몄뿉 궗怨 湲곗쟾뿉 뵲瑜 遺긽 遺쐞뿉 븳 뿰援 諛 뿬硫 李⑹슜 뿬遺瑜 젙솗엳 遺꾩꽍븯湲곌 遺덇뒫븯떎. 洹몃윭굹 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 뒛뼱굹怨 엳뒗 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓣 泥닿퀎쟻쑝濡 援щ퀎븯뿬 遺꾨쪟븳 援궡쓽 泥 踰덉㎏ 뿰援щ씪뒗 젏뿉꽌 洹 쓽쓽媛 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 蹂대떎 뜑 紐낇솗븳 듅꽦쓣 뙆븙븯湲 쐞빐, 뼢썑 떎湲곌쓽 쟾뼢쟻씤 뿰援ш 븘슂븯떎怨 깮媛곹븳떎.

寃곕줎쑝濡, 닔룞 諛 쟾룞 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵 遺遺 寃쎌쬆씠뿀쑝굹, 븞硫대 癒몃━ 넀긽씠 媛옣 쓷븳 넀긽 遺쐞떎. 쁽옱 利앷븯怨 엳뒗 궏蹂대뱶 愿젴 넀긽쓣 怨좊젮븷 븣, 궗怨좊 삁諛⑺븯湲 쐞븳 蹂댄샇옣援 諛 븞쟾 洹쒖튃쓽 솗由쎌씠 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: CHC. Data curation: BSK, JHK. Formal analysis: BCC. Visualization: KCB. Writing–original draft: DHK. Writing–review & editing: All authors.

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