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The Effect of Cold Water Immersion on Physiological Indices, Inflammatory and Immune Responses during a Soccer Match
Korean J Sports Med 2021;39:170-180
Published online December 1, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2021.39.4.170
© 2021 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Suntae Park1, Sunghoon Hur1, Kyungjun An1, Youngwoo Kwon2, Kyunghoon Park3, Junho Kim4, Jongsam Lee1

1Department of Physical Education, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, 2Department of Physical Education, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 3Korea Football Association, Seoul, 4Madisesang Hospital, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Jongsam Lee
Department of Physical Education, Daegu University, 201 Daegudae-ro, Jillyang-eup, Gyeongsan 38453, Korea
Tel: +82-53-850-6083, Fax: +82-53-850-6089, E-mail: jlee@daegu.ac.kr
Received April 28, 2021; Revised October 12, 2021; Accepted October 26, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: We investigated the effects of cold water immersion (CWI) treatment during half-time break on performance related physiological indices during second half soccer match.
Methods: Twenty-two collegiate soccer players participated in the study. Subjects undertook 3 minutes head out seated with whole body immersion at 19oC to 21oC. Total four venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for markers of ionic regulations and inflammatory (interleukin [IL]-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α , and vascular endothelial growth factor) and immune functions (immunoglobulin [Ig] G, IgG2, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, and IgM).
Results: Partial oxygen concentration and %SO2 level was lowered in CWI. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values were not significantly different between experimental groups. While there was no notable effect was shown in Na and Ca2竊, K concentration was higher in CWI during second half match. There were no effects in any of inflammatory and/or anti-inflammatory cytokines and Ig.
Conclusion: These results suggest that CWI during half time break exert positively affects in buffering capacity and promote oxygen delivery to the actively recruited skeletal muscle, possibly results in improve soccer performance during second half match.
Keywords : Body temperature, Athletic performance, Inflammation, Immunity
꽌 濡

異뺢뎄뒗 젚궛 뿭移 닔以뿉 媛源뚯슫 슫룞 媛뺣룄濡 쟾·썑諛 90遺 룞븞 10 km 씠긽쓽 嫄곕━瑜 씠룞븷 닔 엳뒗 솢룞젰쓣 슂援ы븯硫1, 젏븨, 깭겢, 쟾젰吏덉< 벑怨 媛숈 룺諛쒖쟻씤 뙆썙쓽 諛쒗쁽쓣 룞떆뿉 슂援ы빐 넂 泥대젰 닔以씠 븘슂븯떎2. 듅엳, 뒪봽由고듃 젏븨쓣 넻빐 泥닿났 긽깭뿉꽌쓽 蹂 젏쑀 슦쐞瑜 李⑥븯湲 쐞븳 諛섎났쟻씤 떊泥 솢룞 깮由ъ쟻 痢〓㈃뿉꽌 떊泥댁쟻 뿉꼫吏 냼떎瑜좎쓣 60%–90%뿉 떖븯寃 빐 湲곗닠쟻, 洹몃━怨 쟾닠쟻 寃쎄린 슫쁺쓽 痢〓㈃뿉 而ㅻ떎 빐 슂씤쑝濡 옉슜븳떎1. 寃쎄린 以 씠룞嫄곕━ 슫룞 媛뺣룄瑜 쟾諛섏쟾怨 썑諛섏쟾 궗씠뿉 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 썑諛섏쟾뿉꽌 쟾諛섏쟾뿉 鍮꾪빐 슫룞 媛뺣룄쓽 쁽븳 媛먯냼 5%–10% 씠룞嫄곕━쓽 媛먯냼媛 굹궗떎3. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뱾 쟾諛섏쟾쓣 吏굹硫댁꽌 泥대궡 뿉꼫吏쓽 遺議 긽깭媛 諛쒖깮빐 썑諛섏쟾쓽 寃쎄린젰 븯媛 굹굹뒗 寃껋씠씪 蹂 닔 엳떎. 씠뒗 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 以 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以묒뿉 썑諛섏쟾쓣 쐞븳 鍮좊Ⅸ 泥대젰 쉶蹂듦낵 뵾濡쒕룄 셿솕瑜 넻빐 썑諛섏쟾쓣 鍮꾪븷 닔 엳뒗 諛⑸쾿쟻 깘깋씠 븘슂븿쓣 蹂댁뿬二쇱留, 씠뿉 븳 꽭遺쟻씤 깮由ъ쟻 湲곗쟾뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 뿬쟾엳 誘명씉븳 떎젙씠떎. 씠 媛숈씠, 由ш렇 諛 넗꼫癒쇳듃 媛숈씠 諛섎났쟻쑝濡 寃쎄린뿉 엫빐빞 븯뒗 슫룞 꽑닔뱾 씠쟾 寃쎄린瑜 넻빐 쑀諛쒕맂 깮由ъ쟻 뵾濡 긽깭瑜 理쒕떒 떆媛꾩뿉 셿솕 샊 냼硫몄떆궗 닔 엳뒗 諛⑸쾿쓣 李얘퀬옄 븳떎. 떎뼇븳 쉶蹂 諛⑸쾿씠 쁽옣뿉꽌 쟻슜릺怨 엳吏留 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂(cold water immersion)뒗 뒪룷痢 쁽옣뿉꽌 二쇱슂븳 쉶蹂 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 꼸由 궗슜릺怨 엳떎4. 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂뒗 삁愿 닔異뺤쓣 씪쑝耳 삁븸 怨듦툒씠 媛먯냼븯硫댁꽌 異쒗삁뿉 쓽븳 遺醫낆쓽 理쒖냼솕, 꽭룷 궡 궗쑉쓽 븯, 뿼利 諛섏쓳쓽 뼲젣뿉 슚怨쇨 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎5. Peiffer 벑6 궗씠겢 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂(14℃/5遺)瑜 븳 寃곌낵 吏곸옣 삩룄媛 媛먯냼븯怨 怨좉컯룄 吏援ъ꽦 슫룞 닔뻾젰씠 뼢긽릺뿀떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯쑝硫, Ascensão 벑7 異뺢뎄 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 븳 寃쎄린 썑 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂(10℃/10遺)뿉 빐 洹쇱쑁 넀긽쓽 媛먯냼 洹쇱떊寃 湲곕뒫쓽 鍮좊Ⅸ 쉶蹂 媛뒫꽦쓣 젣떆븳 諛 엳떎. 븯吏留, 쁽옱源뚯 異뺢뎄 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 쟾諛섏쟾 寃쎄린 醫낅즺 吏곹썑 쉶蹂듬쪧 뼢긽쓣 쑀룄빐 궪 닔 엳뒗 泥섏튂瑜 넻빐 썑諛섏쟾 寃쎄린 떆 굹굹뒗 떎뼇븳 깮由ъ쟻 蹂씤뱾쓽 蹂솕瑜 泥닿퀎쟻쑝濡 궡 뿰援 寃곌낵뒗 諛쒗몴맂 諛 뾾떎. 뵲씪꽌, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 異뺢뎄 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 삩 移⑥닔瑜 넻빐 긽듅맂 泥댁삩쓽 븯媛뺤쓣 쑀룄븳 썑 썑諛섏쟾 寃쎄린젰 愿젴 蹂씤 諛 삁以 뵾濡-뿼利앹몴뿉 굹굹뒗 깮由ъ쟻 슚怨쇰 洹쒕챸븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

1. 뿰援щ긽

븰 옱븰 以묒씤 떒씪 異뺢뎄 궡 異뺢뎄 꽑닔 珥 22紐(怨⑦궎띁 2紐 룷븿)쓣 뿰援щ긽옄濡 꽑젙븯떎. 뿰援щ긽옄瑜 쑕떇援(n=11)怨 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂援(n=11)쑝濡 굹늻뿀쑝硫 媛 떎뿕援 궡 닔鍮꾩닔 3紐, 以묒븰뵆젅씠뼱 4紐, 怨듦꺽닔 3紐, 諛 怨⑦궎띁 1紐낆뵫씠 룷븿릺룄濡 븯떎. 뿰援щ긽옄쓽 꽑젙 諛 떎뿕援 諛곗젙 떆 꽑닔 媛쒖씤쓽 룊냼 룷吏뀡씠 옒 諛섏쁺맖 臾쇰줎 몢 떎뿕援곗쓽 쟾젰씠 鍮꾩듂븯뿬 벑븳 寃쎄린媛 씠猷⑥뼱吏 닔 엳룄濡 븯떎. 떎뿕 李멸 쟾 紐⑤뱺 뵾뿕옄뿉寃 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻, 궡슜 諛 吏꾪뻾怨쇱젙쓣 룷븿븳 떎뿕 쟾諛섏뿉 빐 씠빐븷 닔 엳쓣 젙룄쓽 異⑸텇븳 꽕紐낆쓣 떎떆븯쑝硫, 援щ븰援 뿰援ъ쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶濡쒕꽣 듅씤쓣 뼸뼱 吏꾪뻾븯떎(No. 1040621-201407-BR-002-02). 떎뿕긽옄뱾뿉寃 떎뿕 李멸뿉 븵꽌 理쒖냼 1二쇱씪媛 痢≪젙 蹂씤뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗 빟臾쇱쓽 蹂듭슜쓣 湲덉븯쑝硫, 젙긽쟻씤 썕젴쓣 젣쇅븳 遺媛쟻씤 媛쒖씤 슫룞 李몄뿬瑜 젣븳븯떎. 떎뿕 李멸 2二쇱씪 쟾 泥댁꽦遺 遺꾩꽍湲(X-SCAN plus Ⅱ; Jawon Medical, Gyeongsan, Korea)瑜 궗슜빐 떎뿕긽옄쓽 떊泥댁쟻 듅꽦 諛 泥 議곗꽦鍮꾨 痢≪젙뻽쑝硫 PAR O Medics 媛뒪 遺꾩꽍湲(Sandy, UT, USA)瑜 궗슜븳 슫룞遺븯寃궗瑜 넻빐 理쒕 궛냼꽠痍⑤웾쓣 痢≪젙빐깉떎. 뵾뿕옄쓽 떊泥댁쟻 듅꽦 Table 1뿉 굹궦 諛붿 媛숇떎.

Table 1 . Comparison of physical characteristic between control and cold water immersion (CWI) group

CharacteristicControl groupCWI group
Age (yr)20.4±1.120.5±1.2
Height (cm)179.9±4.5179.8±5.7
Body mass (kg)71.8±2.470.2±5.7
VO2max (mL/kg/min)62.2±4.658.9±6.8
Athlete career (yr)9.3±1.19.7±1.2
RRmax49.1±5.648.4±7.5
VEmax (BTPS)121.3±10.1117.0±21.9
RERmax1.09±0.031.09±0.09
METmax17.7±1.316.8±1.9

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

RR: respiratory rate per minute, VE: ventilatory capacity, BTPS: body temperature, pressure, and saturated, RER: respiratory exchange rate (VCO2/VO2), MET: metabolic equivalent.



2. 떎뿕 젅李

怨좎삩쓽 솚寃(30℃ 씠긽)뿉꽌 떎젣 異뺢뎄寃쎄린瑜 吏꾪뻾븿쑝濡쒖뜥 떎뿕쓣 닔뻾븯쑝硫, 떎뿕뿉 李몄뿬븯湲 쟾 理쒖냼 1二쇱씪 룞븞 痢≪젙 蹂씤뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗 빟臾(씉뿰, 쓬二 諛 移댄럹씤)쓽 蹂듭슜 諛 꽠痍⑤ 넻젣븯떎. 떎뿕긽옄뱾뿉寃 쟾궇 異⑸텇븳 닔硫(理쒖냼 7떆媛 씠긽)쓣 痍⑦븳 썑 떎뿕뿉 李멸븯룄濡 슂泥븯쑝硫, 삤쟾뿉뒗 媛踰쇱슫 슫룞留뚯쓣 떎떆븳 썑, 삤썑 3떆뿉 떎젣 寃쎄린뿉 엫븷 닔 엳룄濡 븯떎. 寃쎄린 떆媛꾩쓣 삤썑 3떆濡 怨꾪쉷븳 寃껋 떎젣 븰 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린媛 二쇰줈 2–3떆 쟾썑뿉 떆옉맂떎뒗 젏쓣 怨좊젮븳 寃껋쑝濡, 寃쎄린 떆 삁긽 湲 솚寃쎌 뿬由꾩쿋쓽 臾대뜑쐞(怨좎삩[∼30℃] 떎뒿[60% 씠긽쓽 긽뒿룄])媛 吏냽릺뒗 긽깭濡 꽕젙븯떎. 寃쎄린뒗 떎젣 寃뚯엫 떆 쟻슜릺뒗 洹쒖튃濡 쟾·썑諛 媛 45遺꾧낵 쟾·썑諛 궗씠 15遺꾩쓽 븯봽엫 쑕떇쓣 젣怨듯븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 吏꾪뻾릺뿀떎. 떎뿕 떦씪 씤議 옍뵒媛 꽕移섎맂 슫룞옣뿉꽌 떊諛쒓낵 뼇留먯쓣 踰쀪퀬 媛踰쇱슫 슫룞蹂듭옣留뚯쓣 李⑹슜븳 긽깭濡 泥댁쨷怨 怨좊쭑 삩룄瑜 痢≪젙븯떎. 떎뿕 떆옉 1떆媛 쟾遺꽣 紐⑤뱺 떎뿕 긽옄뿉寃 쐞꽦 쐞移 솗씤 떆뒪뀥(global positioning system)쓣 옣李⑺븳 臾댁꽑 떖諛뺤닔 痢≪젙怨(Polar Electro, Kempele, Finland)瑜 李⑹슜븯寃 븯뿬 떎뿕 醫낅즺 떆源뚯 씠룞嫄곕━ 留 15珥덈쭏떎쓽 떖諛뺤닔瑜 痢≪젙븯쑝硫 씠瑜 넗濡 留 遺꾨쭏떎 룊洹 떖諛뺤닔瑜 궛異쒗븯떎. 쟾諛 45遺꾩쓽 寃쎄린瑜 醫낅즺븳 썑, 쑕떇援 궡 꽑닔뱾 룊긽떆 寃쎄린뿉꽌 룞씪븳 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 쑕떇쓣 痍⑦븯룄濡 吏떆븯쑝硫, 援遺 깋李쒖쭏怨 留덉궗吏, 씠삩 諛 떦 븿쑀 쓬猷뚯쓽 꽠痍 벑씠 痍⑦빐議뚮떎. 씠 議곗쟻쑝濡 삩 移⑥닔援곗쓽 꽑닔 쟾썝뿉寃뚮뒗 誘몃━ 以鍮꾪빐 몦 삩 移⑥닔 옣移(닔삩 19℃–21℃)뿉 뱾뼱媛 理쒖냼 쓨遺 븘옯遺遺꾩쓣 移⑥닔떆궓 긽깭濡 3遺꾧컙 癒몃Ъ룄濡 븯뿬 泥댁삩쓽 븯媛뺤쓣 쑀룄븯떎. 떎뿕옄뒗 떊泥댁쓽 移⑥닔 긽깭瑜 솗씤븯쑝硫 媛뒫븳 10–20珥덇컙 癒몃━瑜 룷븿븳 쟾떊씠 移⑥닔 긽깭瑜 쑀吏븷 닔 엳룄濡 룆젮븯떎. 꽑닔뱾쓽 泥댁삩 蹂솕瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 梨꾪삁 떆湲곗 룞씪븯寃 꽑닔뱾쓽 泥댁삩쓣 痢≪젙븯떎. 떎젣 떎뿕 떆 寃쎄린옣 二쇰 湲 솚寃 議곌굔 삩룄 29℃뿉꽌 30℃, 긽뒿룄 68.5%, 湲곗븬 759 mm Hg떎. 쟾泥댁쟻씤 떎뿕 젅李⑤뒗 Fig. 1怨 媛숇떎.

Fig. 1. Experimental design. 0-min: before soccer match was kicked off, P45-min: immediately after the end of the first half during soccer match, half time: 15-minute break time between the first half and the second half during soccer match, P90-min: immediately after the end of the second half during soccer match. ★: Blood sampling.

3. 梨꾪삁 諛 삁븸 遺꾩꽍 諛⑸쾿

몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 쟾泥 떎뿕怨쇱젙 以 뿤뙆由 諛 臾댁쿂由щ맂 吏꾧났 梨꾪삁愿쓣 씠슜빐 쟾셿젙留μ쑝濡쒕꽣 떆빀 떆옉 1떆媛 쟾, 쟾諛 醫낅즺 吏곹썑, 썑諛 떆옉 吏곸쟾 諛 썑諛 醫낅즺 吏곹썑 벑 珥 4쉶뿉 嫄몄퀜 梨꾪삁쓣 떎떆븯떎. 梨꾩쭛맂 삁븸 썝떖遺꾨━(×3,000 RPM)瑜 넻빐 삁옣(뿤뙆由 泥섎━ 뒠釉뚮줈遺꽣) 샊 삁泥(臾댁쿂由щ맂 뒠釉뚮줈遺꽣)쓣 遺꾨━븳 썑, 삁泥 cyto flowmetry (BIO-Plex 200 system; Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA)瑜 씠슜빐 삁以 궗씠넗移댁씤怨 immuno-isotope쓽 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯쑝硫 뿤뙆由 泥섎━맂 뒠釉뚯뿉 梨꾩쭛맂 삁븸 NOVA 遺꾩꽍湲(Nova Biomedical Corp., Waltham, MA, USA)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 삁以 깮由ы븰쟻 吏몴(pH, HCO3, PO2, PCO2, %SO2, hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, lactate, Na, K, Ca2竊)쓽 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯떎.

4. 넻怨 泥섎━

蹂 뿰援щ 넻빐 닔吏묐릺뒗 紐⑤뱺 옄猷뚯뿉 빐 Windows슜 IBM SPSS 봽濡쒓렇옩(version 20.0; IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 씠슜빐 룊洹좉낵 몴以렪李⑤ 궛異쒗븯떎. 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂 쑀臾댁 떆媛꾩쓽 寃쎄낵 궗씠뿉 굹굹뒗 媛 蹂씤 궗씠쓽 긽샇옉슜 諛 二쇳슚怨 寃利앹쓣 쐞빐 諛섎났痢≪젙 遺꾩궛遺꾩꽍(repeated analysis of variance)쓣 떎떆븯쑝硫, 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 二쇳슚怨 寃利 떆 쑀쓽븳 李④ 굹궇 寃쎌슦 Tukey쓽 궗썑寃젙쓣 떎떆븯떎. 젙洹쒖꽦 寃利앹쓣 떎떆빐 젙洹쒕텇룷 삎꽦씠 븞맂 寃쎌슦 몢 援 媛 李⑥씠뒗 Mann-Whitney test瑜, 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛 李⑥씠뒗 Wilcoxon test瑜 떎떆븯떎. 媛 떆媛꾨뿉꽌쓽 몢 援 媛 룊洹 李 寃利앹쓣 쐞빐 룆由 t-寃젙((independent t-test)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 紐⑤뱺 옄猷뚯뿉 븳 넻怨꾩쟻 쑀쓽닔以 α=0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃 怨

1. 뵾뿕옄쓽 떊泥댁쟻 듅꽦 鍮꾧탳

삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援곗쓽 떊泥댁쟻 듅꽦쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 굹씠, 꽑닔 寃쎈젰, 떊옣, 泥댁쨷, 理쒕 궛냼꽠痍⑤웾, 遺꾨떦 理쒕 샇씉닔, BTPS (body temperature, pressure, and saturated) 議곌굔뿉꽌쓽 理쒕 솚湲곕웾, 理쒕 샇씉援먰솚鍮꾩쑉, 理쒕 궗떦웾(maximum metabolic equivalent)쓽 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏 븡븯떎(p>0.05) (Table 1).

2. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 泥댁쨷, 泥댁삩, 떖諛뺤닔, 씠룞嫄곕━쓽 蹂솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

泥댁쨷 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 궗씠뿉 泥섏튂 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉뒗 긽샇옉슜씠 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹, 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉뒗 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠媛 굹궗떎(p<0.001). 利, 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 떆媛꾩쓽 쓲由꾩뿉 뵲씪 쑕떇援(0遺, 71.60±2.4 kg; 90遺 썑, 70.0±2.5 kg), 삩 移⑥닔援(0遺, 70.2±6.5 kg; 90遺 썑, 68.4±6.6 kg) 媛곴컖 泥댁쨷씠 媛먯냼븳 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(p<0.001). 泥댁삩 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 궗씠뿉 泥섏튂 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉 쑀쓽븳 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇰 굹깉떎(p<0.001). 삩 移⑥닔援곗뿉꽌 쑕떇援곌낵 鍮꾧탳빐 쟾諛섏쟻쑝濡 궙 泥댁삩쓣 쑀吏븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝硫(p<0.01), 媛곴컖쓽 떆媛꾨뿉꽌 몢 援 媛 룊洹 李⑤ 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 븯봽엫 쑕떇 썑쓽 泥댁삩 쑕떇援곕낫떎 삩 移⑥닔援곗씠 쑀쓽븯寃 궙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(쑕떇援, 36.7℃±0.2℃ vs. 삩 移⑥닔援, 35.0℃±1.2℃; p<0.001). 떖諛뺤닔 씠룞嫄곕━뒗 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 궗씠뿉 泥섏튂 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉뒗 긽샇옉슜씠 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹, 떖諛뺤닔뒗 쑕떇援(쟾諛 15遺[174.1±0.2 beats/min] vs. 썑諛 15遺[165.9±9.2 beats/min])怨 삩 移⑥닔援(쟾諛 15遺[172.3±9.8 beats/min] vs. 썑諛 15遺[161.5±8.7 beats/min]]紐⑤몢 쟾∙썑諛 룞씪 떆媛꾨뿉꽌 媛곴컖 쑀쓽븯寃 궙寃 굹궗떎(p<0.05). 씠룞嫄곕━뒗 떆媛꾩쓽 寃쎄낵뿉 뵲씪 슌졆븳 媛먯냼 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁뿬 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 紐⑤몢 쟾·썑諛 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 理쒖큹 15遺꾩쓽 씠룞嫄곕━媛 媛옣 留롮 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎(p<0.05) (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Changes in (A) body mass, (B) body temperature, (C) mean heart rate (the first and second half of Con vs. CWI), (D) maximum heart rate, (E) total heart rate, (F) total distance covered, (G) cumulative distance, and (H) sectional distance following CWI and Con. (A, B) Significant difference to 0-min (main effect of time, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001), to P45-min (†††p<0.001), and to P90-min (‡‡‡p<0.001). Significantly different from Con (main effect of group, §p<0.05, §§p<0.01, §§§p<0.001). (C, D) Significant difference to the first-half 15-min (*p<0.05). (H) Significant difference to 0–15 min (*p<0.05), ∼60 min (p<0.01). Values are presented as mean (standard deviation). Con: control group, CWI: cold water immersion group, 0-min: before soccer match was kicked off, P45-min: immediately after the end of the first half during soccer match, half time: 15-minute break time between the first half and the second half during soccer match, P90-min: immediately after the end of the second half during soccer match.

3. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 깮由ъ쟻 吏몴 蹂솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 媛졇삩 깮由ъ쟻 吏몴 蹂솕(glucose, lactate, PO2, PCO2, %SO2, Na, K, Ca2竊)瑜 궡 寃곌낵, 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 궗씠뿉 泥섏튂 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉뒗 긽샇옉슜씠 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹, 痢≪젙 떆湲 媛꾩뿉뒗 쑀쓽븳 二쇳슚怨쇰 굹깉떎(p<0.05). HCO3쓽 寃쎌슦뿉뒗 몢 슂씤 媛 쑀쓽븳 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇰 굹깉쑝硫(p<0.05), 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂(p<0.01) 痢≪젙 떆湲(p<0.001)뿉 븳 슂씤蹂 二쇳슚怨쇰 寃利앺븳 寃곌낵뿉꽌룄 媛쒕퀎 슂씤뿉 빐 쑀쓽븳 슚怨쇰 굹깉떎. 쟾諛섏쟻쑝濡 쑕떇援곌낵 鍮꾧탳빐 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂援 궡 HCO3 냽룄뒗 넂 긽깭瑜 쑀吏뻽쑝硫(쑕떇援, 25.7–30.6 mmol/L vs. 삩 移⑥닔援, 28.6–33.1 mmol/L; p<0.01), 媛쒕퀎 援 궡 떆媛 寃쎄낵뿉 뵲瑜 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂援곗뿉꽌뒗 寃쎄린 쟾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 45遺 썑 90遺 썑쓽 떆젏뿉꽌 쑀쓽븳 媛먯냼瑜 굹깉쑝굹(31.6±1.0 to 28.5±1.5 mmol/L; p<0.001), 쟾諛섏쟾 쑕떇(븯봽엫)뿉꽌뒗 삤엳젮 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓣 蹂댁뿬 45遺 썑(28.5±1.5 mmol/L) 諛 90遺 썑(28.6±1.4 mmol/L)蹂대떎 쑀쓽븯寃 넂 닔移섎 굹깉떎(p<0.001) (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Changes in (A) pH, (B) HCO3, (C) PO2, (D) PCO2, (E) oxygen saturation, (F) hematocrit (Hct), (G) hemoglobin (Hb), (H) glucose, (I) lactate, (J) sodium, (K) potassium, (L) calcium concentration following CWI and Con. Significant difference to 0-min (main effect of time, *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001), P45-min (p<0.05, ††p<0.01, †††p<0.001), P90-min (p<0.05, ‡‡p<0.01, ‡‡‡p<0.001). Significant difference from Con (main effect of group, §p<0.05, §§p<0.01, §§§p<0.001). Significant difference to P45-min and P90-min (&&&p<0.001). Values were expressed by means (standard deviation). Con: control group, CWI: cold water immersion group, 0-min: before soccer match was kicked off; P45-min: immediately after the end of the first half during soccer match; half time, 15-minute break time between the first half and the second half during soccer match; P90-min, immediately after the end of the second half during soccer match.

4. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 뿼利 諛 硫댁뿭 吏몴 蹂솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

삁以 뿼利 吏몴瑜 궡 寃곌낵 interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 紐⑤몢뿉 빐 슂씤 媛 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇰뒗 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝硫, IL-10뿉꽌留 떆媛꾩뿉 뵲瑜 쑀쓽븳 二쇳슚怨쇰 굹깉떎(p<0.001) (Table 2). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 몢 슂씤 媛 쑀쓽븳 긽샇옉슜 슚怨쇰 굹궡吏 븡븯쑝硫, VEGF뿉꽌 떆媛꾩뿉 븳 二쇳슚怨쇨 굹궗떎(p<0.001). 삁以 硫댁뿭 吏몴瑜 궡 寃곌낵, immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA IgM뿉꽌 떆媛꾩쓽 寃쎄낵뿉 뵲瑜 利앷 뼇긽씠 슌졆븯寃 굹굹湲 뻽쑝굹, 뼱뼚븳 蹂씤뿉 빐꽌룄 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎(Table 3).

Table 2 . Comparison between control and cold water immersion conditions for inflammatory response during soccer match

VariableTimep-value


0-minP45-minHalf timeP90-minMain effect (group)GroupTimeGroup×time
IL-1bCon1.002.09±0.000.98±0.002.34±0.001.60±0.001.000<0.0011.000
CWI1.002.09±1.02**0.98±0.87†††,‡2.34±1.35*1.60±1.01
Main effect (time)1.002.09±0.70***0.98±0.60†††,‡‡‡2.34±1.35***
IL-6§Con1.000.52±0.000.72±0.000.44±0.000.67±0.00
CWI1.000.52±0.000.72±0.000.44±0.000.67±0.00
Main effect (time)1.000.52±0.000.72±0.000.44±0.00
IL-8Con1.001.01±0.401.35±1.240.84±0.401.05±0.820.5550.4010.609
CWI1.001.15±0.510.72±0.540.96±0.410.96±0.49
Main effect (time)1.001.08±0.451.03±0.990.90±0.40
IL-10Con1.001.03±0.211.95±0.62***,††1.63±0.33***,†††1.40±0.400.333<0.0010.645
CWI1.001.23±0.331.80±0.31***,†††1.89±0.83**,††1.48±0.53
Main effect (time)1.001.13±0.29*1.88±0.48***,†††1.76±0.63***,†††
TNF-κCon1.001.20±0.900.93±0.04***,‡‡‡0.64±0.19***0.94±0.510.377<0.0010.737
CWI1.000.90±0.350.95±0.260.58±0.30**,†††0.86±0.29
Main effect (time)1.001.05±0.680.94±0.18‡‡‡0.61±0.25***,†
VEGFCon1.000.96±0.400.96±0.321.12±0.15*1.01±0.320.3570.1510.841
CWI1.001.19±0.19*0.98±0.20††1.16±0.401.08±0.29
Main effect (time)1.001.07±0.330.97±0.261.14±0.30*

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation unless otherwise specified.

0-min: before soccer match was kicked off, P45-min: immediately after the end of the first half during soccer match, half time: 15-minute break time between the first half and the second half during soccer match, P90-min: immediately after the end of the second half during soccer match, Con: control group, CWI: cold water immersion group, IL: interleukin, TNF: tumor necrosis factor, VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.

Significant difference to 0-min (*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001), to P45-min (p<0.05, ††p<0.01, †††p<0.001), and to P90-min (p<0.05, ‡‡‡p<0.001). §Most of samples were read as a minimal detectable range.



Table 3 . Comparison between control and cold water immersion conditions for immune response during soccer match

VariableTimep-value


0-minP45-minHalf timeP90-minMain effect (group)GroupTimeGroup×time (p-value)
IgG1Con1.001.08±0.290.75±0.500.70±0.440.88±0.390.2750.5150.146
CWI1.000.92±0.641.39±1.601.90±2.671.30±1.65
Main effect (time)1.001.00±0.491.07±1.201.30±1.97
IgG2Con1.001.46±0.940.68±0.651.04±0.971.04±0.730.1620.1660.100
CWI1.001.17±1.111.63±1.553.26±4.381.76±2.76
Main effect (time)1.001.31±1.011.15±1.262.15±3.29
IgG3Con1.001.34±0.740.96±1.352.66±5.581.49±2.460.8700.2160.827
CWI1.001.10±1.011.53±1.451.93±1.971.39±1.41
Main effect (time)1.001.22±0.871.25±1.392.30±4.09
IgG4Con1.001.18±0.380.73±0.630.69±0.540.90±0.500.1820.3780.056
CWI1.000.91±0.651.42±1.372.10±2.161.33±1.29
Main effect (time)1.001.04±0.541.07±1.101.35±1.68
IgACon1.001.13±0.390.76±0.530.87±0.800.94±0.490.2390.4330.077
CWI1.000.95±0.651.20±0.921.56±1.041.18±0.86
Main effect (time)1.001.04±0.530.98±0.771.21±0.97
IgMCon1.001.20±0.510.71±0.741.03±1.390.99±1.910.2550.3060.191
CWI1.001.11±1.141.59±1.601.90±2.061.40±1.68
Main effect (time)1.001.16±0.861.15±1.301.47±1.77

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation unless otherwise specified.

0-min: before soccer match was kicked off, P45-min: immediately after the end of the first half during soccer match, half time: 15-minute break time between the first half and the second half during soccer match, P90-min: immediately after the end of the second half during soccer match, Con: control group, CWI: cold water immersion group, Ig: immunoglobulin.


怨 李

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븰 異뺢뎄 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 쟾諛섏쟾 寃쎄린 醫낅즺 吏곹썑 泥댁삩 븯媛뺤쓣 紐⑹쟻쑝濡 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 떎떆븯뿬 썑諛섏쟾 寃쎄린젰뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗 愿젴 蹂씤 諛 떎뼇븳 삁以 깮由, 뿼利, 洹몃━怨 硫댁뿭 吏몴쓽 슚怨쇰 諛앺엳怨좎옄 븯떎. 紐⑤뱺 떊泥댁쟻(몢 援 媛 궎, 紐몃Т寃), 깮由ъ쟻(理쒕 궛냼꽠痍⑤웾, 遺꾨떦 理쒕 샇씉닔, 理쒕 솚湲곕웾, 理쒕 샇씉援먰솚鍮꾩쑉, 理쒕 궗떦웾, 닔異뺢린 씠셿湲 삁븬) 吏몴瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 쑕떇援곌낵 삩 移⑥닔援 媛꾩뿉 넻怨꾩쟻씤 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏 븡븯떎. 씠뒗 떊泥 諛 쑀궛냼쟻 吏몴뿉 李⑥씠媛 뾾뿀쓬쓣 諛섏쁺븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 떎뿕援곗쓽 諛곗젙씠 쟻젅븯寃 씠猷⑥뼱議뚯쓬쓣 굹궡뒗 寃껋씠씪 븯寃좊떎.

1. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 泥댁쨷, 泥댁삩, 떖諛뺤닔, 씠룞嫄곕━쓽 蹂솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 以 泥댁쨷 媛먯냼쑉쓣 鍮꾧탳빐蹂 寃곌낵 삩 移⑥닔援곌낵 쑕떇援 궗씠뿉 쑀쓽븳 泥댁쨷쓽 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏 븡 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 삩 移⑥닔援곗 썑諛 寃쎄린 醫낅즺 썑 1.7 kg (2.6%)쓽 泥댁쨷 媛먯냼媛 굹궃 諛섎㈃ 쑕떇援곗뿉꽌뒗 1.8 kg (2.2%)쓽 泥댁쨷 媛먯냼媛 굹궗떎. 씎誘몃줈슫 寃껋 삩 移⑥닔 援곗뿉꽌뒗 遺遺꾩쓽 泥댁쨷 媛먯냼媛 쟾諛섏쟾쓣 留덉튂怨 굹궃 諛섎㈃ 쑕떇援곗뿉꽌뒗 쟾諛섏쟾怨 썑諛섏쟾쓽 媛먯냼 젙룄媛 鍮꾩듂븯寃 굹궗떎뒗 젏씠떎. 씠뒗 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 넻븳 泥댁삩 븯媛뺤쓽 슚怨쇰 넻빐 썑諛섏쟾쓽 諛쒗븳웾 媛먯냼媛 쑀룄릺吏뒗 븡븯쑝굹 썑諛 15遺꾩뿉꽌 媛옣 留롮 씠룞嫄곕━瑜 굹궦 寃껋쓣 怨좊젮빐蹂 븣 寃쎄린젰뿉 쓽誘몄엳뒗 슚怨쇰 굹궦 寃곌낵씪 깮媛곷맂떎. 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 넻븳 泥댁삩 븯媛뺤쓽 슚怨쇰 넻빐 썑諛섏쟾쓽 諛쒗븳웾 媛먯냼쓽 媛뒫꽦쓣 깮媛곹빐 蹂 닔 엳떎. 씠 븿猿, 珥 씠룞嫄곕━瑜 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵 쑕떇援곗씠 뜑 留롮 嫄곕━瑜 씠룞븳 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝굹(쑕떇援, 7,912.9±521.1 m vs. 삩 移⑥닔援, 7,056.8±1,274.0 m), 떎젣 씠룞 嫄곕━뿉 넻怨꾩쟻 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠뒗 뾾뿀떎. 몢 떎뿕援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 굹궃 泥댁쨷쓽 媛먯냼뒗 寃쎄린 以 吏곸엫쓽 뼇긽(以묎컯룄 냽룄 씠긽쓽 떖由ш린, 뒪봽由고듃, 젏봽 벑)뿉 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏆븯쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 寃쎄린뿉 뵲瑜 泥댁삩쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 吏곹썑 쟾諛 떆옉 떆젏쓽 泥댁삩怨 鍮꾧탳빐 쑀쓽븯寃 긽듅븳 寃곌낵瑜 굹궦 썑, 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 쑀쓽븳 븯瑜 굹깉떎. 븯吏留 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔援곗뿉꽌뒗 泥댁삩 븯媛 룺씠 쑀쓽븯寃 겕寃 굹굹, 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 넻븳 쑀쓽븳 泥댁삩 븯媛뺤쓽 슚怨쇰 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(p<0.001). 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 Siegel 벑8쓽 뿰援 寃곌낵 쑀궗븳 寃껋쑝濡, 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 깦(sweat gland)쓽 룞썝 뼲젣 泥댁삩쓽 븯媛 슚怨쇰 넻빐 썑諛섏쟾쓽 諛쒗븳웾 媛먯냼瑜 쑀룄븳 寃껋쑝濡 쑀異뷀븷 닔 엳떎. 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 以 젙긽湲 봽濡 꽑닔뱾쓽 寃쎄린 以 씠룞嫄곕━뒗 8–12 km瑜 굹궡硫9, 쁺援 봽由щ몄뼱 由ш렇뿉꽌 솢빟븯뒗 씪遺 꽑닔뱾쓽 寃쎌슦뿉뒗 寃쎄린 以 15 km 씠긽쓽 嫄곕━瑜 吏곸씤떎1. 씠뿉 諛섑빐 援궡 젙긽湲됱쓽 봽濡 異뺢뎄 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 닔뻾븳 뿰援 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 9.82±1.04 km쓽 룊洹 씠룞嫄곕━瑜 굹궡 쇅援쓽 젙긽湲 꽑닔뱾뿉 紐 誘몄튂뒗 寃곌낵瑜 굹궡뿀떎10. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌쓽 寃쎄린 以 씠룞嫄곕━뒗 몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 7–8 km뿉 洹몄튂怨 엳뼱 援궡 젙긽湲 봽濡 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援 寃곌낵 긽떦븳 李⑥씠媛 엳떎怨 븯寃좊떎. 씠룞嫄곕━쓽 씠 媛숈 李⑥씠뒗 寃껋 꽑닔뱾쓽 寃쎄린젰 닔以 諛 寃쎄린 슫쁺쓽 李⑥씠뿉 湲곗씤뻽쓣 媛뒫꽦怨, 寃쎄린뿉꽌쓽 쟾닠쟻 슫슜쓽 李⑥씠뿉꽌 諛쒖깮릺뿀쓣 媛뒫꽦쓣 怨좊젮븷 닔 엳떎. 쟾諛섏쟾怨 썑諛섏쟾쓽 씠룞嫄곕━쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 썑諛섏쟾뿉꽌쓽 씠룞嫄곕━媛 쟾諛섏쟾蹂대떎 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃곌낵瑜 굹깉떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 寃쎄린媛 吏꾪뻾릺硫댁꽌 뵾濡 臾쇱쭏쓽 異뺤쟻 諛 뿉꼫吏 湲곗쭏쓽 옣웾 媛먯냼(듅엳, 媛쒕퀎 洹쇱꽟쑀 궡 湲由ъ퐫寃먯쓽 媛먯냼웾쓽 蹂솕)媛 二쇱슂븳 슂씤쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎11.

2. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 삁以 깮由 吏몴뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

삁以 pH뒗 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 긽듅븯뒗 寃곌낵媛 굹궗떎. 븯봽엫 쑕떇 썑뿉뒗 쑕떇援곗 7.40±0.03쑝濡 뿬쟾엳 寃쎄린 쟾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 넂 닔移섎 蹂댁쑝硫, 삩 移⑥닔援곗뿉꽌뒗 7.38±0.03쓣 굹궡 寃쎄린 떆옉 쟾怨 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯怨, 쟾諛 醫낅즺 떆쓽 닔移섏 鍮꾧탳빐꽌뒗 쑀쓽븯寃 궙븘吏 닔移섎 蹂댁떎. 씠 媛숈 닔移섏쓽 蹂솕뒗 쟾諛 寃쎄린 以 怨좉컯룄쓽 슫룞쓣 닔뻾뻽쓬뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 꽑닔뱾씠 異⑸텇븳 궛냼 怨듦툒 뿭웾怨 깮꽦릺뒗 닔냼 씠삩(H) 젣嫄 뒫젰쓣 蹂댁쑀븯怨 엳뿀쓬쓣 諛섏쁺븯뒗 寃껋씠씪 빐꽍맂떎. 以묓깂궛뿼(HCO3)쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌뒗 쟾諛섏쟻쑝濡 몢 援 媛 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂쓽 슚怨쇨 굹궗떎. 씠뒗 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 以묓깂궛뿼쓽 깮꽦쓣 쁽寃⑺븯寃 利앷떆궓 寃껋쑝濡 빐꽍릺硫 씠瑜 넻빐 깮꽦릺뒗 닔냼씠삩쓽 젣嫄 뿭웾씠 뼢긽릺뿀쓣 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 씠 媛숈씠 긽듅맂 以묓깂궛뿼 닔移섎뒗 썑諛섏쟾 寃쎄린 醫낅즺 떆뿉룄 議곌뎔怨 鍮꾧탳빐 넂 긽깭瑜 쑀吏븳 寃껋쑝濡 굹굹, 泥대궡 궛꽦솕瑜 留됰뒗 뜲 湲띿젙쟻쑝濡 옉슜뻽쓣 寃껋씠씪 깮媛곷릺뒗 遺遺꾩씠떎. 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂뿉 뵲瑜 궛냼 遺꾩븬(PO2)怨 씠궛솕깂냼 遺꾩븬(PCO2)쓣 궡 寃곌낵, 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂援곗 寃쎄린 떆옉 쟾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏 븡吏留 쟾諛 醫낅즺 떆 鍮꾧탳빐꽌뒗 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷뻽떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 議곗쭅쑝濡쒖쓽 궛냼 쟾떖 諛 議곗쭅쓽 궛냼 꽠痍 뿭웾 뼢긽怨 留욌Ъ젮 議곗쭅쓽 씠궛솕깂냼 깮꽦웾 利앷瑜 쑀룄빐 깉떎뒗 寃껋쓣 異붿젙븷 닔 엳뒗 寃껋씠硫, 씠궛솕깂냼 깮꽦웾쓽 利앷뒗 怨 議곗쭅 궡뿉꽌쓽 뿉꼫吏 깮꽦쓣 쐞븳 쑀궛냼 궗 옉슜씠 솢諛쒗븯寃 씠猷⑥뼱議뚯쓬쓣 諛섏쁺븯뒗 寃곌낵濡 蹂 닔 엳떎. 씠 븿猿, 以묓깂궛뿼怨 씠궛솕 깂냼쓽 蹂솕 뼇긽씠 꽌濡 쑀궗븯寃 굹궗뒗뜲(Fig. 2B and D), 씠뒗 洹쇱쑁뿉 異뺤쟻맂 젚궛(lactate竊딫)怨 泥대궡 셿異⑹젣 뿭븷쓣 븯뒗 以묓깂궛씠삩씠 닔냼씠삩怨 寃고빀빐(利, H竊딫CO3 ↔ CO2竊딫2O) 씠궛솕깂냼濡 궛솕릺뼱 굹궃 寃곌낵濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 궛냼룷솕룄(%SO2)뒗 쑕떇援곗쓽 닔移섏 鍮꾧탳빐 쑀쓽븯寃 궙븯뒗뜲, 씠뒗 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 넻빐 議곗쭅쑝濡쒖쓽 궛냼 怨듦툒웾씠 뒛뼱궗쓬쓣 굹궡뒗 寃껋쑝濡 삁븸쓽 궛냼 遺꾩븬씠 뜑 궙寃, 씠궛솕깂냼 遺꾩븬씠 넂寃 굹궗떎뒗 寃곌낵 愿젴씠 留ㅼ슦 源딆 쓽誘몃 궡룷븯怨 엳떎 븯寃좊떎. Roberts 벑12 빆꽦 슫룞 썑 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 理쒕븯 洹 湲곕뒫쓽 쉶蹂 뼢긽뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢뿉 븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌, 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂 썑 궛냼룷솕룄쓽 媛먯냼 씠궛솕깂냼쓽 利앷瑜 愿李고븯硫댁꽌 怨④꺽洹쇱뿉꽌쓽 궛냼 異붿텧 利앷瑜 젣떆븳 諛 엳떎. 씠뒗 蹂 뿰援 寃곌낵瑜 吏吏븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡, 議곗쭅쓽 궛냼 怨듦툒 利앷媛 寃곌뎅 쟾諛 醫낅즺 썑 議곗쭅쓽 뿉꼫吏 깮꽦怨 怨듦툒쓽 洹좏삎 쑀吏뿉 湲곗뿬뻽쓣 寃껋씠 젏怨, 씠瑜 넻빐 洹쇱쑁 議곗쭅 벑뿉 諛쒖깮븳 留먯큹 뵾濡쒖쓽 쉶蹂듭쓣 珥됱쭊떆耳 썑諛 寃쎄린瑜 쐞븳 떊泥 뿉꼫吏 怨듦툒쓽 鍮꾩텞 湲곗쭏쓽 솗蹂대줈 옉슜뻽쓣 寃껋씠씪뒗 젏쓣 異붿륫븷 닔 엳떎. 씠뒗 쟾諛섏쟻씤 寃쎄린젰쓽 뼢긽쓣 쐞빐 留ㅼ슦 쓽誘 엳寃 二쇰ぉ빐빞 븷 寃곌낵씪 븷 닔 엳떎. 븯吏留, 떎뿕뿉 쟻슜맂 슫룞쓽 삎깭뿉 뵲瑜 옄쑉떊寃쎌“젅(autonomic regulation), 뵾遺 삩룄, 洹쇱쑁 삩룄, 떖遺 삩룄뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢 떎瑜 닔 엳쑝誘濡 씠뱾 슂씤뱾쓣 怨좊젮븳 빐꽍씠 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎4. 씠 븿猿, 듃젅씠떇 봽濡쒓렇옩 썑 젙湲곗쟻씤 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂뒗(15℃) 빆꽦 듃젅씠떇 쟻쓳 吏몴(1 RM, 벑泥숈꽦 洹쇰젰, 洹 吏援щ젰, 깂꽦 닔뻾젰)瑜 媛먯냼떆궎굹 쑀궛냼 슫룞 닔뻾젰(time trial쓽 룊洹 뙆썙 諛 닔뻾젰, 理쒕 쑀궛냼 뙆썙)뿉뒗 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂吏 븡뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳뼱4 삩 移⑥닔쓽 삩룄, 鍮덈룄, 湲곌컙, 슫룞 삎깭瑜 硫대엳 遺꾩꽍빐 뒪룷痢 쁽옣뿉 쟻슜빐빞 븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

寃쎄린 以 뿤紐④濡쒕퉰怨 삁깋냼 슜쟻瑜좎쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵, 몢 援곗뿉꽌 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏 븡븯쑝굹 寃쎄린媛 吏꾪뻾맖뿉 뵲씪 援곗뿉 긽愿뾾씠 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븿쓣 蹂댁떎. 씠뒗 몢 吏몴 紐⑤몢媛 泥대궡 닔遺꾨웾 蹂솕뿉 誘쇨컧븯寃 諛섏쓳븳떎뒗 궗떎濡 솗씤븷 닔 엳쑝硫, 몢 援 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 寃쎄린媛 吏꾪뻾맖뿉 뵲씪 泥댁쨷쓽 쑀쓽븳 媛먯냼媛 굹궃 寃껉낵 留λ씫쓣 븿猿 븯뒗 寃곌낵씪 븷 닔 엳떎. 삁以 뿉꼫吏 湲곗쭏쓽 怨듦툒怨 궗슜씠 痢〓㈃뿉꽌 룷룄떦怨 젚궛 냽룄쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡룉떎. 삁以 룷룄떦 냽룄뒗 쟾諛섏쟾 寃쎄린 以 쑀궗븳 뼇긽쓣 蹂댁씠硫 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븯떎. 씠뒗 怨좉컯룄쓽 슫룞怨 븿猿 깮由ъ쟻쑝濡 洹쇱쑁 諛 媛꾩뿉 옣맂 떦썝쓽 遺꾪빐瑜 湲됯꺽엳 옄洹뱁븿쑝濡쒖뜥 洹 議곗쭅뿉꽌 슂援ы븯뒗 뿉꼫吏웾쓣 異⑹”떆궎怨좎옄 씤뒓由 遺꾨퉬웾 媛먯냼瑜 넻빐 삁以 룷룄떦 냽룄瑜 넂씠뒗 옉슜쓣 븳 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 삁以 젚궛 냽룄쓽 蹂솕뒗 젣2젚궛 뿭移섏젏쑝濡 젣떆릺怨 엳뒗 4 mmol/L瑜 珥덇낵븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡, 寃쎄린 以 슫룞 媛뺣룄媛 理쒕 떖諛뺤닔 湲곗쓽 85%瑜 긽쉶븯怨 엳뒗 寃곌낵 洹 留λ씫쓣 븿猿 븯뒗 寃곌낵씪 븷 닔 엳떎. Stølen 벑1 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 以 삁以 젚궛 냽룄쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 썑, 쟾諛섏쟾뿉 鍮꾪빐 썑諛섏쟾 썑쓽 젚궛 닔移섍 궙寃 쑀吏맂떎怨 諛쒗몴븳 諛 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援щ룄 씠윭븳 꽑뻾 뿰援щ뱾쓽 寃곌낵 씪移섑븯怨 엳뼱 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 5.5 mmol/L쓣, 썑諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 ∼4.9 mmol/L쓣 굹궡 쟾諛섏쟾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 썑諛섏쟾뿉꽌 궙 젚궛 닔移섎 굹깉떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 諛앺엳怨 엳뒗 諛붿 媛숈씠 썑諛섏쟾뿉꽌쓽 씠룞嫄곕━ 媛먯냼 留λ씫쓣 媛숈씠 븯뒗 寃껋씠씪 븷 닔 엳쑝硫13, 理쒕 궛냼꽠痍⑤웾씠 뜑 넂寃 굹굹뒗 꽑닔뿉꽌 삁以 젚궛 닔移섎뒗 궙寃 굹굹뒗뜲 씠뒗 怨좉컯룄쓽 媛꾪뿉쟻 슫룞쑝濡쒕꽣쓽 쉶蹂 뿭웾 뼢긽, 利앷맂 쑀궛냼꽦 諛섏쓳, 뼢긽맂 젚궛 젣嫄 뿭웾 諛 씤궛겕젅븘떞(phosphocreatine) 옱깮꽦 뿭웾 뼢긽 벑怨 愿젴릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎14.

3. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 삁以 씠삩 냽룄쓽 蹂솕뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

寃⑸젹븳 슫룞 닔뻾 以 씠삩 빆긽꽦쓽 議곗젅 떆뒪뀥쓣 쑀吏븯뒗 寃껋 以묒슂븯硫 씠뒗 Na-K ATPase媛 議곗젅븳떎15. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 Na쓽 냽룄 蹂솕뒗 쟾諛섏쟾 醫낅즺 썑 몢 援 媛 李⑥씠瑜 굹궡吏뒗 븡븯쑝굹, 寃쎄린 떆옉 쟾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븯뒗 쁽긽쓣 蹂댁떎. 씠뒗 寃쎄린 以 닔遺 냼떎웾怨 鍮꾧탳빐 Na 냼떎웾씠 쟻뼱 寃곌낵쟻쑝濡 꽭룷쇅븸 궡 Na 냽룄媛 긽듅뻽쓬쓣 諛섏쁺븯뒗 寃껋씠떎. 寃쎄린 以 K 냽룄쓽 蹂솕뒗 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂 썑 쑕떇援곌낵 鍮꾧탳빐 쑀쓽븯寃 넂 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 씠뒗 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 K 냽룄쓽 븯瑜 셿솕떆耳곗쓬쓣 굹궡뒗 寃곌낵濡 蹂 닔 엳쑝硫, 삩 移⑥닔濡 씤빐 궙븘吏 泥댁삩씠 Na-K ATPase쓽 솢꽦쓣 씪떆쟻쑝濡 젣븳븳16 쁺뼢쑝濡쒕룄 쑀異뷀븷 닔 엳쑝굹 씠뿉 븳 媛뒫꽦 젣븳쟻씠씪 깮媛곷맂떎.

4. 異뺢뎄 븯봽엫 쑕떇 以 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂媛 硫댁뿭 議곗젅 씤옄 諛쒗쁽뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢

異뺢뎄 寃쎄린뿉 엳뼱 썑냽 寃쎄린뿉 엫븯湲 쟾 셿쟾븳 쉶蹂듭쓣 씠猷 닔 엳뒗 뿭웾 꽑닔뱾쓽 닔뻾젰 쑀吏肉 븘땲씪 遺긽 삁諛⑹쓣 쐞빐꽌룄 以묒슂븯떎. 듅엳, 뿼利앹꽦怨 빆뿼利앹꽦 諛섏쓳쓽 쟻젅븳 洹좏삎 洹쇱쑁 옱삎꽦뿉 以묒슂븯떎. IL-6뒗 슫룞怨 愿젴맂 湲곌퀎쟻 遺븯濡 씤빐 빆뿼利앹꽦 諛섏쓳쑝濡 옉슜븯誘濡 “뿼利 諛섏쓳꽦” 留덉씠삤移댁씤(myokine)씠硫, TNF-α 깮꽦쓣 뼲젣븯怨 IL-10 깮꽦쓣 뼢긽떆궎誘濡 빆뿼利 슚怨쇰룄 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎17. 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂뒗 궙 삩룄濡 빞湲곕릺뒗 留먯큹 삁愿 닔異뺢낵 젙닔븬(hydrostatic pressure)쑝濡 씤빐 由쇳봽愿怨 紐⑥꽭삁愿쓽 닾怨쇱꽦쓣 媛먯냼떆궎硫 씠濡 씤빐 媛먯냼맂 泥댁븸 솗궛 뿼利앹꽦 꽭룷 移⑥쑄怨 遺醫 삎꽦쓽 媛먯냼뿉 룄쓣 二쇰뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎18. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린뿉 뵲瑜 뿼利앹몴(IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF)쓽 슌졆븳 蹂솕瑜 愿李고븯吏 紐삵븯떎. Rowsell 벑19 二쇰땲뼱 異뺢뎄꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 븳 寃곌낵, 뿼利 吏몴(IL-b, IL-6, IL-10)뿉뒗 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂吏 븡븯쑝굹 뵾濡 媛쒖꽑怨 떎由 넻利앹씠 媛먯냼뻽떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎. Siqueira 벑20 슫룞쑝濡 洹쇱쑁 넀긽쓣 쑀룄븳 썑 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂븳 寃곌낵, IL-6, IL-10쓽 蹂솕뒗 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹, TNF-α뒗 24떆媛 썑 利앷뻽떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뱾 슫룞 以 썕젴맂 꽑닔쓽 寃쎌슦 뿼利앹꽦 諛섏쓳씠 利앷븷 닔 엳쑝굹21, 씠뿉 븳 鍮좊Ⅸ 뼲젣 湲곗쟾씠 cytokine, leukotrienes, 삉뒗 prostaglandins쓽 留ㅺ컻濡 븯뼢 議곗젅맆 닔 엳쓬쓣 깮媛곹빐 蹂 닔 엳떎22. IL-10쓽 諛쒗쁽 뼇긽 IL-8怨 떎瑜닿쾶 굹굹 떎뿕 쟾諛섏쓣 넻빐 몢 援 媛 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠뒗 굹굹吏 븡븯쑝굹, 븯봽엫 쑕떇떆媛꾩쓣 湲곗젏쑝濡 떎뿕援곌낵 臾닿븯寃 쑀쓽븳 利앷媛 굹궗쑝硫 썑諛 寃쎄린源뚯룄 利앷맂 뼇긽씠 吏냽릺뿀쓬쓣 蹂댁떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 썕젴맂 吏援ъ꽦 꽑닔쓽 寃쎌슦 븞젙 떆 IL-10 깮꽦怨 議곗젅 T꽭룷(regulatory T cells) 諛쒗쁽쑝濡23 뿼利 씤옄 諛쒗쁽쓽 利앷瑜 뼲젣떆궎뒗 슚怨쇰 諛쒗쐶븳 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 븯吏留, 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린뿉 뵲瑜 뿼利 씤옄쓽 蹂솕뒗 옉 깦뵆 궗씠利덈줈 씤빐 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂쓽 떎젣쟻 슚怨쇰 꽕紐낇븯湲곗뿉뒗 遺議깊븿씠 엳쑝誘濡 씠瑜 怨좊젮븳 빐꽍씠 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎. 硫댁뿭湲濡쒕텋由(Ig) 빆썝(諛붿씠윭뒪, 諛뺥뀒由ъ븘)怨 쑀빐븳 臾쇱쭏濡쒕꽣 蹂댄샇븯뒗 뿭븷쓣 븳떎24. 삁以 硫댁뿭議곗젅씤옄쓽 蹂솕瑜 궡 寃곌낵뿉꽌 紐⑤뱺 吏몴뱾쓽 蹂솕 뼇긽씠 씪젙븯寃 굹궓쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 紐⑤뱺 硫댁뿭湲濡쒕툝由(IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA, IgM) 씤옄뱾뿉 빐 쑕떇援곌낵 鍮꾧탳빐 삩 移⑥닔援곗뿉꽌뒗 쟾諛 醫낅즺 떆源뚯뒗 洹 蹂솕媛 誘몃명븯쑝굹 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂 썑 긽듅릺뒗 쁽긽쓣 蹂댁뿬 썑諛 醫낅즺 떆源뚯룄 쑕떇援곌낵쓽 李⑥씠瑜 쑀吏븯뒗 寃곌낵瑜 굹깉떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 泥대궡 硫댁뿭 議곗젅 湲곗쟾씠 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂瑜 넻빐 솢꽦솕릺뼱 슫룞 以 諛쒖깮븯뒗 뿼利 諛 넀긽쓽 삁諛⑹쓣 쐞빐 븞젙꽦 엳寃 쑀吏맂 寃껋쑝濡 빐꽍맆 닔 엳寃좊떎. 씠 媛숈 寃곌낵뒗 寃쎄린 썑 쉶蹂듭뿉 湲띿젙쟻쑝濡 옉슜빐, 썑냽 寃쎄린 以鍮꾨 쐞븳 썕젴쑝濡쒖쓽 떊냽븳 蹂듦瑜 넻빐 寃쎄린젰 뼢긽뿉 湲띿젙쟻쑝濡 湲곗뿬븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 븯吏留, Janský 벑25 삩 移⑥닔뿉 닚솕릺吏 븡 10紐 궓꽦쓣 긽쑝濡 諛섎났쟻씤 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂(二쇰떦 3씪, 6媛쒖썡)瑜 떆뻾븯뿬 IgG, IgA, IgG쓽 蹂솕媛 굹굹吏 븡쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 뵲씪꽌, 옣湲곌컙 삉뒗 諛섎났쟻 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂 떆쓽 삩룄, 鍮덈룄, 湲곌컙뿉 뵲瑜 깮由ъ쟻, 硫댁뿭, 뿼利 諛섏쓳뿉 븳 異붽쟻씤 뿰援ш 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

寃곕줎쟻쑝濡, 삩 移⑥닔 泥섏튂뒗 泥댁삩 긽듅쓣 뼲젣븯뒗 룞떆뿉, 삁以 셿異 뿭웾怨 븿猿 怨④꺽洹쇱쓽 궛냼 쟾떖 뿭웾쓣 뼢긽떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 삩 移⑥닔뿉 뵲瑜 以묒텛 뵾濡 議곗젅 湲곗쟾怨 愿젴맂 샇瑜대が쓽 蹂솕瑜 꽭遺쟻쑝濡 諛앺엳뒗 썑냽 뿰援ш 븘슂븯떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: JL. Data curation: SH, KA, JK. Methodology: YK, KP. Writing–original draft: SP. Writing–review & editing: SH, JL.

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