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Analysis of the Relationship between Athletes’ Attitudes toward Doping, Sport Orientation, and Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport among Collegiate Athletes
Korean J Sports Med 2021;39:102-109
Published online September 1, 2021;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2021.39.3.102
© 2021 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Eunkuk Kim1, Hanbyel Park2, Hokyung Choi3

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, SRC Rehabilitation Hospital, Gwangju, 2Department of Physical Education, Korea National Sport University, Seoul, 3Department of Sport Science, Korea Institute of Sport Science, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Hokyung Choi
Department of Sport Science, Korea Institute of Sport Science, 727 Hwarang-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 01794, Korea
Tel: 竊82-2-970-9572, Fax: 竊82-2-970-9502, E-mail: ghruddl82@gmail.com
Received December 23, 2020; Revised August 19, 2021; Accepted August 19, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: This study aimed to identify the relationship between the attitudes toward doping, sport orientation, and perceived motivational climate in sport, and to provide useful information on the anti-doping strategy.
Methods: A total of 567 athletes in 21 sports completed four questionnaires Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS), Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; competitiveness orientation, win orientation, goal orientation), Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ; task orientation, ego orientation), and Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2; ego-involving and task-involving climates). They were divided into four categories: speed/power (n=201), endurance (n=154), motor skill (n=119), and team (n=93). We identified the difference of variables among four categories and verified possible factors significantly associated with attitudes toward doping.
Results: The PEAS of athletes in both speed/power sports and Team sports was higher than motor skill sports, and the team sports athletes also showed higher PEAS than endurance sports athletes. In speed/power sports, the task of TEOSQ and the win of SOQ were related to PEAS, and in endurance sports, the task of TEOSQ and the ego-involving of PMCSQ were related to PEAS. In motor skill sports and Team sports, the task-involving of PMCSQ and the goal of SOQ were associated with PEAS, respectively.
Conclusion: The results of this study provided new insights into the psychosocial mechanisms of attitudes toward doping, and it would contribute significantly to effective anti-doping strategies based on sports characteristics.
Keywords : Doping, Attitude, Sport orientation, Motivational climate
꽌 濡

꽭怨꾨컲룄븨湲곌뎄(World Anti-Doping Agency, WADA) 븳援룄븨諛⑹쐞썝쉶(Korea Anti-Doping Agency, KADA) 媛숈 援媛 룄븨諛⑹ 湲곌뎄뒗 슫룞꽑닔瑜 吏냽쟻쑝濡 愿由ы븯怨 湲덉빟臾쇨낵 湲덉諛⑸쾿 궗슜뿉 빐 媛뺣젰븳 젣옱瑜 媛븿뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨, 援궡쇅 룄븨諛⑹ 洹쒖젙 쐞諛섏궗濡뒗 뿬쟾엳 2% 젙룄 닔以쓣 쑀吏븯怨 엳떎1. 2017뀈 윭떆븘뒗 룄븨寃궗 寃곌낵瑜 議곗옉븳 삉쓽濡 援젣삱由쇳뵿쐞썝쉶(International Olympic Committee)濡쒕꽣 ‘쉶썝 옄寃 젙吏’ 泥섎텇쓣 諛쏆 諛 엳怨 2019뀈뿉룄 룄븨寃궗 깦뵆쓣 議곗옉븳 쓽샊뿉 빐 WADA媛 4뀈 룞븞 援젣뒪룷痢좊쉶뿉 李멸瑜 젣옱븯뒗 吏뺢퀎瑜 궡由ш린룄 뻽떎. 援궡뿉꽌룄 2019뀈뿉 떎떆맂 6,655嫄댁쓽 룄븨寃궗 以 룄븨諛⑹洹쒖젙 쐞諛 궗濡媛 12嫄(0.2%) 諛쒖깮븳 寃껋뿉 諛섑빐, 2020뀈뿉 떎떆맂 3,150嫄댁쓽 寃궗 以묒뿉뒗 16嫄(0.5%)씠 諛쒖깮븯떎.

슫룞꽑닔뱾씠 슫룞닔뻾뒫젰 뼢긽쓣 쐞븳 臾쇱쭏 諛 諛⑸쾿(performance-enhancing substances and methods)쓣 궗슜븯뒗 뻾쐞씤 룄븨(doping) 씪떆쟻씤 떖由ъ쟻 怨쇱젙뿉 쓽븳 寃껋씠 븘땲씪 쓽룄쟻씠怨 옄湲고넻젣쟻씠硫 紐⑺몴吏뼢쟻씤 뻾쐞씠떎2. 씠윭븳 뻾쐞뒗 뒪룷痢 긽솴뿉꽌 紐⑺몴 꽑깮怨 떎뻾, 紐⑺몴뿉 븳 紐곗엯, 紐⑺몴 떖꽦쓣 쐞븳 뵾뱶諛, 紐⑺몴 룊媛 諛 닔젙 벑쓽 怨쇱젙뿉꽌 삎꽦릺뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞(behavior)뿉 븳 떊뀗(belief)怨 꽦뼢(disposition), 利 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇(attitude)怨 愿젴씠 엳怨3, 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 삎꽦뿉 엳뼱 媛쒖씤쟻(personality-related) 슂씤怨 긽솴쟻(situational) 슂씤 諛 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻(systemic) 슂씤 벑 떎뼇븳 슂씤씠 愿뿬븳떎2.

꽦痍⑤ぉ몴吏뼢 슫룞꽑닔媛 뒪룷痢 닔뻾怨쇱젙뿉꽌 뼱뼚븳 痢〓㈃쓣 뜑 넂씠 異붽뎄븯硫 닔뻾븯뒗吏瑜 쓽誘명븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 꽑닔뱾씠 꽦痍⑥긽솴뿉꽌 꽦怨듦낵 떎뙣瑜 룊媛븯뒗 湲곗怨 옄떊쓽 뒫젰 쑀臾대 뙋떒븯뒗 湲곗씠 맂떎4. 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢 寃쎌웳吏뼢(competitiveness orientation), 듅由ъ뼢(win orientation), 紐⑺몴吏뼢(goal orientation) 벑 3媛쒖쓽 李⑥썝쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븷 닔 엳뒗뜲, 寃쎌웳吏뼢 뒪룷痢좉 吏땶 寃쎌웳쟻 긽솴뿉꽌 留뚯”쓣 異붽뎄븯젮뒗 寃껋쓣 쓽誘명븯怨, 듅由ъ뼢 寃쎄린뿉꽌 듅由ы븯뒗 寃껋뿉 珥덉젏 몢뒗 諛섎㈃, 紐⑺몴吏뼢 옄떊씠 젙빐넃 닔뻾紐⑺몴 떖꽦뿉 珥덉젏쓣 留욎텣떎怨 븷 닔 엳떎5. 듅엳, 寃쎌웳떖씠 媛뺥븯嫄곕굹 洹밸룄쓽 듅由ъ뼢 꽦뼢씠 엳뒗 꽑닔媛 룄븨쓣 뻾븯湲곕룄 븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎3,6.

씠윭븳 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 븿猿 뒪룷痢 긽솴뿉꽌 솗씤릺뒗 삉 떎瑜 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦怨 옄븘 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦씠떎. 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦 긽瑜 씠湲곕뒗 寃껊낫떎 뒪룷痢 긽솴뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븳 臾몄젣瑜 빐寃고븯嫄곕굹 옄떊쓽 湲곗쓣 떖꽦븯뒗 뜲 愿떖쓣 媛뽯뒗 꽦뼢씤 諛섎㈃, 옄븘 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦 긽蹂대떎 醫뗭 湲곕줉 삉뒗 슦쐞쓽 꽦쟻쓣 궡뒗 뜲 愿떖쓣 媛뽯뒗 꽦뼢씠떎7. 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢 꽦뼢씪닔濡 利먭굅 삉뒗 옱誘 벑 湲띿젙쟻 젙꽌 뿰愿꽦씠 넂怨, 옄븘 紐⑺몴吏뼢 꽦뼢씪닔濡 슦슱 삉뒗 遺덉븞, 뵾濡쒖 媛숈 遺젙쟻 젙꽌 뿰愿꽦씠 넂쑝硫, 떆빀뿉꽌 뙣諛고븷 寃쎌슦 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢 꽦뼢쓣 媛吏 꽑닔뱾蹂대떎 뙣諛곗뿉 뵲瑜 젙꽌쟻 吏媛곸뿉 엳뼱 뜙 쑀뿰븳 꽦뼢씠 굹궃떎8. 삉븳 1,035紐 泥댁퐫 슫룞꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 룞湲 諛 룄븨뿉 븳 깭룄瑜 솗씤븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦씠 궡쟻 룞湲곗 젙(竊)쟻씤 愿怨꾨 蹂댁씠怨 궡쟻 룞湲곕뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 깭룄 遺(–)쟻씤 愿怨꾨 蹂댁뿬, 寃곌낵쟻쑝濡 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢꽦씠 룄븨뿉 빐 뾼寃⑺븿쓣 蹂댁씤떎怨 꽕紐낇븯떎9. 뵲씪꽌 怨쇱젣 紐⑺몴吏뼢 꽦뼢쓣 媛吏 꽑닔蹂대떎 옄븘 紐⑺몴吏뼢 꽦뼢쓣 媛吏 꽑닔뿉寃뚯꽌 굹굹뒗 뙣諛곗뿉 뵲瑜 遺덉븞젙븳 떖由ш 룄븨쓣 븯뒗 뻾룞怨 愿젴릺뼱 엳쓣 寃껋씠씪 異붿륫맂떎.

룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 뒪룷痢 솢룞뿉꽌 肄붿튂쓽 뻾쐞뿉 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏆븘 삎꽦릺뒗 븰뒿솚寃쎌씠씪 븷 닔 엳뒗뜲, 븰뒿쓽 怨쇱젙怨 李몄뿬媛 媛뺤“릺뒗 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 삎꽦릺湲곕룄 븯怨 씤媛꾩쓽 寃쎌웳씠굹 以 룊媛瑜 媛뺤“븯뒗 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 삎꽦릺湲곕룄 븳떎10. 씠윭븳 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 떆빀 삉뒗 寃쎌웳옄瑜 뼱뼸寃 씤吏븷吏 寃곗젙븯뒗 뜲뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪, 꽑닔쓽 룄뜒쟻 뻾쐞뿉룄 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튇떎11. 利, 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 룄뜒쟻 뻾쐞媛 궙 寃껉낵 愿젴씠 엳뒗 諛섎㈃, 怨쇱젣 以묒떖 遺꾩쐞湲곕뒗 뒪룷痢좎쓽 怨듭젙꽦쓣 쑀吏븯怨 寃곌낵뿉 듅蹂듯븷 以 븘뒗 벑쓽 뒪룷痢좎씤 젙떊(sportspersonship)怨 愿젴씠 엳쑝硫 씠뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞濡쒕꽣 꽑닔瑜 蹂댄샇븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 꽕紐낅릺뿀떎12,13. 떎젣, 援궡 怨⑦봽꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 떆뻾븳 뿰援14뿉꽌룄 肄붿튂쓽 李⑤퀎 벑쓽 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 룄븨뿉 빐 愿븳 깭룄瑜 蹂댁씠寃 븯怨, 寃쎌웳쓽떇 벑쓽 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 룄븨뿉 빐 뼲븬쟻씤 깭룄瑜 蹂댁씠寃 븳떎怨 꽕紐낇븯떎.

쁽옱源뚯 룄븨 뻾쐞 愿젴맂 留롮 援쇅 꽑뻾뿰援щ뒗 룄븨 쓽룄(intension) 뻾쐞(behavior)뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 떖由ъ궗쉶쟻 슂씤쓣 깘깋빐솕쑝굹15, 援궡 룄븨 愿젴 뿰援ъ쓽 遺遺꾩 諛섎룄븨쓽 젙떦꽦, 룄븨쓽 臾몄젣젏 벑怨 媛숈 룄븨뿉 븳 쑄由щЦ젣 泥섎쾶 벑怨 媛숈 踰뺤쟻씤 臾몄젣媛 二쇰 씠猷④퀬 엳怨, 援궡 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 떆뻾븳 뿰援щ뒗 룄븨 떎깭 씤떇 닔以 벑쓣 솗씤븯뒗 뜲뿉 洹몄튂怨 엳떎16. 理쒓렐뿉뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞 吏곸젒쟻씤 愿젴씠 엳뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 떊뀗怨 깭룄 벑쓣 遺꾩꽍븯뒗 뿰援ш 吏꾪뻾릺怨 엳쑝굹, 떒씪 醫낅ぉ뿉 븳젙릺뼱 엳怨 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇怨 꽦뼢뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤 삉븳 굹씠, 꽦蹂 벑 씤援ы넻怨꾪븰쟻씤 듅꽦쑝濡 젣븳븯떎.

슫룞꽑닔쓽 룄븨쓣 삁諛⑺븯湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 룄븨 쓽룄 삉뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 떖由ъ궗쉶븰쟻씤 슂씤쓣 솗씤븯뒗 寃껋씠 留ㅼ슦 以묒슂븯떎17. 삉븳, 냽룄(speed) 옒(power)瑜 슂援ы븯뒗 醫낅ぉ쓽 꽑닔媛 湲덉빟臾 궗슜 沅뚯쑀瑜 媛옣 留롮씠 諛쏄퀬 吏援щ젰쓣 슂븯뒗 醫낅ぉ怨 슫룞湲곗닠쓣 슂븯뒗 醫낅ぉ 諛 醫낅ぉ 닚쑝濡 湲덉빟臾 沅뚯쑀瑜 諛쏅뒗떎怨 蹂닿퀬맂 諛붿 媛숈씠18, 醫낅ぉ씠 슂援ы븯뒗 듅꽦뿉 뵲씪 룄븨 뻾쐞 쐞뿕씠 넂 솚寃쎌씠 議곗꽦맆 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎. 뵲씪꽌 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떎뼇븳 醫낅ぉ쓽 뿕由ы듃 슫룞꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 醫낅ぉ뿉꽌 슂援щ릺뒗 듅꽦뿉 뵲瑜 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇怨 꽦뼢쓽 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븯怨, 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇怨 꽦뼢뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 媛쒖씤쟻씤 슂씤怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤쓣 痢≪젙븯뿬 愿젴꽦쓣 遺꾩꽍븿쑝濡쒖뜥, 룄븨 뻾쐞쓽 쐞뿕꽦씠 넂 醫낅ぉ뿉 빐 슚怨쇱쟻씠怨 삁諛⑹쟻씤 李⑥썝쓽 諛섎룄븨 쟾왂 留덈젴뿉 쑀슜븳 젙蹂대 젣怨듯븯怨좎옄 븳떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

1. 뿰援щ긽

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 븳援泥댁쑁븰援먯뿉 옱븰븯뿬 썕젴 以묒씤 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔뱾 以 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻怨 젅李⑥뿉 빐 긽꽭엳 꽕紐낆쓣 뱽怨 옄諛쒖쟻씤 李몄뿬뿉 룞쓽븳 21醫낅ぉ(븯怨 18醫낅ぉ, 룞怨 3醫낅ぉ) 567紐낆쓽 슫룞꽑닔뱾쓣 뿰援щ긽옄濡 꽑젙븯떎(Table 1). 뿰援ъ뿉 李몄뿬븯뒗 紐⑤뱺 꽑닔뱾 1 1 媛쒖씤 硫대떞쓣 넻빐 꽕臾 臾명빆뿉 븳 옄꽭븳 꽕紐낆쓣 뱾 썑 吏덈Ц뿉 븳 떟蹂쓣 옄媛 湲곕줉븯뒗 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 硫대떞 怨쇱젙 룞븞 李멸옄쓽 옄諛쒖쟻 李몄뿬 뿬遺瑜 옱李 솗씤븯怨, 꽕臾몄 쓳떟 궡슜쓽 誘쇨컧꽦 븣臾몄뿉 紐⑤뱺 吏덈Ц뿉 빐 떟蹂옄쓽 떊遺꾩씠 쑀異붿뿉 쓽빐 諛앺吏吏 븡뒗떎뒗 泥좎븳 씡紐낆꽦 諛 鍮꾨 蹂댁옣뿉 빐 꽕紐낇븯떎. 삉븳 媛쒖씤 硫대떞쑝濡 꽕臾멸궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯湲 뼱젮슫 李몄뿬옄뿉 빐꽌뒗 쑕룿씠굹 而댄벂꽣瑜 넻빐 鍮꾨硫댁쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 蹂 뿰援 닔뻾쓽 紐⑤뱺 젅李⑤뒗 K븰援먯쓽 쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶濡쒕꽣 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븯떎(듅씤踰덊샇: 20200612-01).

Table 1 . Participants’ demographic information

VariableSpeed/power (n=201)Endurance (n=154)Motor skill (n=119)Team (n=93)Total (n=567)
Sex
Male135 (67.2)120 (77.9)74 (62.2)43 (46.2)372 (65.6)
Female66 (32.8)34 (22.1)45 (37.8)50 (53.8)195 (34.4)
Age (yr)20.04±1.5320.37±1.3420.26±1.4319.97±1.2520.17±1.42
Height (cm)174.11±8.65176.21±8.01168.53±7.83170.65±10.39172.94±9.08
Weight (kg)77.16±18.4971.86±11.1466.03±13.0667.57±12.9571.81±15.41
Career (yr)8.24±1.888.15±2.458.97±2.118.72±1.968.45±2.13

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation or number (%).



2. 룊媛룄援

1) 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 꽦뼢 泥숇룄(Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale)

룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 꽦뼢쓣 痢≪젙븯湲 쐞빐 븳援뼱濡 踰덉뿭맂 Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale (PEAS)쓣 궗슜븯떎19,20. PEAS뒗 17媛쒖쓽 臾명빆뿉 빐 ‘留ㅼ슦 룞쓽븯吏 븡쓬(1)’遺꽣 ‘留ㅼ슦 룞쓽븿(6)’源뚯 븳 諛⑺뼢쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯뒗 6젏 Likert rating scale쓣 궗슜븯뿬 쓳떟븯룄濡 릺뼱 엳怨, 뿰援щ긽옄뱾쓽 臾명빆뿉 븳 씠빐瑜 룙湲 쐞빐 寃쎄린젰 뼢긽쓣 쐞븳 빟臾/諛⑸쾿(performance- enhancing drugs/methods) WADA 諛 KADA뿉꽌 湲덉븯뒗 빟臾 諛 湲덉 諛⑸쾿씠씪뒗 궡슜怨 湲곕텇 쟾솚쓣 쐞븳 빟臾(recreational drugs) 슫룞 紐⑹쟻 씠쇅뿉 쑀씎쓣 紐⑹쟻쑝濡 궗슜븯뒗 씎遺꾩젣, 솚媛곸젣 벑쓽 빟臾쇱씠씪뒗 궡슜쓽 꽕紐낆쓣 꽕臾몄 꽌몢뿉 異붽븯떎. 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 PEAS 젏닔 궛異쒖 媛 臾명빆뿉 븳 쓳떟쓣 빀븳 寃껋쑝濡 理쒖냼 17젏뿉꽌 理쒕 102젏源뚯 젙웾솕븷 닔 엳뒗뜲, 젏닔媛 넂 꽑닔媛 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 꽦뼢쓣 굹궦떎怨 룊媛븳떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 PEAS瑜 援ъ꽦븯뒗 媛 臾명빆 以 꽕紐낅젰씠 궙 臾명빆쓣 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞빐 슂씤遺꾩꽍(factor analysis)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 洹 寃곌낵 珥 10臾명빆뿉 빐 쓳떟븳 옄猷뚮쭔쓣 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯쑝硫(늻쟻꽕紐낅젰=55.64%, Karser-Meyer-Olkin [KMO]=0.914, χ2=2,955.91, degree of freedom [df]=66, p<0.001), 10臾명빆뿉 븳 Cronbach’s α媛믪 0.882濡 솗씤릺뿀떎.

2) 뒪룷痢 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢 꽕臾몄(Sport Orientation Questionnaire)

뒪룷痢 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 Gill怨 Deeter5뿉 쓽빐 媛쒕컻릺怨 븳援뼱濡 踰덉뿭맂 Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ)瑜 궗슜븯떎8. SOQ뒗 珥 25臾명빆뿉 빐 ‘쟾 洹몃젃吏 븡떎(1)’遺꽣 ‘留ㅼ슦 洹몃젃떎(5)’源뚯 븳 諛⑺뼢쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯뒗 5젏 Likert rating scale쓣 궗슜븯뿬 쓳떟븿쑝濡쒖뜥 寃쎌웳 吏뼢(SOQ-Com, 13臾명빆)怨 듅由 吏뼢(SOQ-Win, 6臾명빆) 諛 紐⑺몴 吏뼢(SOQ-Goal, 6臾명빆) 벑 꽭 媛吏 쑀삎쓽 꽦痍⑤룞湲곕 솗씤븷 닔 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 SOQ瑜 援ъ꽦븯뒗 媛 臾명빆 以 꽕紐낅젰씠 궙 臾명빆쓣 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞빐 슂씤遺꾩꽍(factor analysis)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 洹 寃곌낵 SOQ-Com 6臾명빆, SOQ-Win 3臾명빆, SOQ-Goal 5臾명빆뿉 빐 쓳떟븳 옄猷뚮쭔쓣 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯떎(늻쟻꽕紐낅젰=62.72%, KMO=0.958, χ2=9,572.34, df=300, p<0.001). 媛 쑀삎쓣 痢≪젙븯뒗 臾명빆뿉 븳 Cronbach’s α媛믪 媛곴컖 0.866 (SOQ-Com) 0.758 (SOQ- in) 諛 0.870 (SOQ-Goal)쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎.

3) 뒪룷痢 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦 꽕臾몄(Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire)

꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦뿉 븳 痢≪젙 Duda Nicholls7媛 媛쒕컻븯怨 븳援뼱濡 踰덉뿭맂 Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ)瑜 궗슜븯쑝硫8, 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦(TEOSQ-Task) 7臾명빆怨 옄븘 吏뼢꽦(TEOSQ-Ego) 6臾명빆뿉 빐 ‘쟾 洹몃젃吏 븡떎(1)’遺꽣 ‘留ㅼ슦 洹몃젃떎(5)’源뚯 븳 諛⑺뼢쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯뒗 5젏 Likert rating scale쓣 궗슜븯뿬 쓳떟븯룄濡 릺뼱 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 TEOSQ瑜 援ъ꽦븯뒗 媛 臾명빆 以 꽕紐낅젰씠 궙 臾명빆쓣 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞빐 슂씤遺꾩꽍(factor analysis)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 洹 寃곌낵 TEOSQ-Task 7臾명빆怨 TEOSQ-Ego 3臾명빆뿉 쓳떟븳 옄猷뚮쭔쓣 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯쑝硫(늻쟻꽕紐낅젰=70.55%, KMO=0.947, χ2=6,428.91, df=78, p<0.001), 媛 쑀삎쓣 痢≪젙븯뒗 臾명빆뿉 븳 Cronbach’s α媛믪 媛곴컖 0.943 (TEOSQ-Task)怨 0.761 (TEOSQ-Ego)濡 솗씤릺뿀떎.

4) 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲 꽕臾몄(Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2)

吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕 痢≪젙븯湲 쐞빐 Newton 벑21씠 젣븞븯怨 븳援뼱濡 踰덉뿭맂 Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2)瑜 궗슜븯怨8, 옄븘 吏뼢꽦(PMCSQ- go) 16媛 빆紐⑷낵 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦(PMCSQ-Task) 17媛 빆紐⑹뿉 빐 ‘쟾 洹몃젃吏 븡떎(1)’遺꽣 ‘留ㅼ슦 洹몃젃떎(5)’源뚯 븳 諛⑺뼢쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븯뒗 4젏 Likert rating scale쓣 궗슜븯뿬 쓳떟븯룄濡 릺뼱 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 PMCSQ-2瑜 援ъ꽦븯뒗 媛 臾명빆 以 꽕紐낅젰씠 궙 臾명빆쓣 젣嫄고븯湲 쐞빐 슂씤遺꾩꽍(factor analysis)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 洹 寃곌낵 PMCSQ-Task 15臾명빆怨 PMCSQ-Ego 10臾명빆뿉 빐 쓳떟븳 옄猷뚮쭔쓣 遺꾩꽍뿉 궗슜븯쑝硫(늻쟻꽕紐낅젰=55.91%, KMO=0.942, χ2=9,561.17, df=435, p<0.001), 媛 쑀삎쓣 痢≪젙븯뒗 臾명빆뿉 븳 Cronbach’s α媛믪 媛곴컖 0.930 (PMCSQ-Task)怨 0.903 (PMCSQ-Ego)쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎.

3. 옄猷 泥섎━

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄媛 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤씤 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤씤 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곗 뼱뼡 愿怨꾧 엳뒗吏 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 봽濡쒓렇옩(IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

슦꽑, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 궗슜븳 꽕臾몄뿉 븳 떦룄瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 깘깋쟻 슂씤遺꾩꽍(exploratory factor analysis)쓣 떎떆븯뿬 슂씤蹂 臾명빆쓣 꽑蹂꾪븯怨, 꽑蹂꾨맂 臾명빆뿉 븳 늻쟻꽕紐낅젰 諛 KMO媛믨낵 Bartlett 援ы삎꽦 寃젙쓣 솗씤븯떎. 씠썑 21媛 醫낅ぉ쓣 醫낅ぉ蹂 떊泥댄솢룞 슂援щ웾, 뒪룷痢 솢룞 슂援щ웾, 뒪룷痢 솢룞쓽 醫낅쪟뿉 뵲씪 떎쓬怨 媛숈씠 4媛쒖쓽 踰붿<濡 遺꾨쪟븯뿬20, 醫낅ぉ 踰붿<蹂꾨줈 PEAS SOQ, TEOSQ, PMCSQ뿉 빐 湲곗닠넻怨꾨웾쓣 궛異쒗븯떎. (1) 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ(speed/power, n=201): 깭沅뚮룄, 쑀룄, 닔쁺(떒嫄곕━), 쑁긽(떒嫄곕━, 븘뱶), 젅뒳留, 뿭룄, 鍮숈긽(떒嫄곕━); (2) 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ(endurance, n=154): 洹쇰 5醫, 닔쁺(옣嫄곕━), 쑁긽(옣嫄곕━), 諛곕뱶誘쇳꽩, 移대늻, 궗씠겢, 議곗젙, 뀒땲뒪, 鍮숈긽(옣嫄곕━); (3) 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ(motor skill, n=119): 泥댁“, 뜲留, 뼇沅, 怨⑦봽, 궗寃, 뒪궎; (4) 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(team, n=93): 빖뱶蹂, 븯궎. 醫낅ぉ 踰붿<媛 蹂씤뱾쓽 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 씪썝蹂웾遺꾩꽍(one-way analysis of variance)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 理쒖냼 쑀쓽李 寃젙(least significant difference test)쓣 궗슜븯뿬 궗썑寃젙(post hoc)쓣 떎떆븯떎. 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤씤 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤씤 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 뼱뼚븳 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗吏 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 PEAS瑜 醫낆냽蹂씤쑝濡 꽕젙븯怨 SOQ_Com, SOQ_Win, SOQ_Goal, TEOSQ_Task, TEOSQ_Ego, PMCSQ_Task, PMCSQ_Ego瑜 룆由쎈씤쑝濡 꽕젙븯뿬 떒怨꾩쟻 떎以묓쉶洹遺꾩꽍(stepwise multiple linear regression)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 룆由쎈씤뱾쓽 遺꾩궛뙺李쎄퀎닔(variance inflation factor)瑜 솗씤븯뿬 떎以묎났꽑꽦(multicollinearity)쓣 룊媛븯떎. 紐⑤뱺 넻怨꾩쓽 쑀쓽 닔以 α=0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃 怨

醫낅ぉ 踰붿<蹂 PEAS SOQ_Com, SOQ_Win, SOQ_Goal, TEOSQ_Task, TEOSQ_Ego, PMCSQ_Task, PMCSQ_Ego쓽 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵(Table 2), PEAS뒗 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ(15.51±6.34젏)怨 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(16.34±6.41젏)씠 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ(13.71±6.25젏)蹂대떎 넂寃 굹궗怨, 듅엳 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(16.34±6.41젏) 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ(14.58±7.13젏)蹂대떎룄 넂븯떎(F=3.459, p=0.016). SOQ_Goal 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ(21.26±3.02젏)怨 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ(21.37±3.65젏)씠 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(20.27±3.21젏)蹂대떎 넂븯怨(F=2.824, p=0.038), TEOSQ_Task뒗 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ(28.28±5.55젏)씠 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ(26.27±5.31젏)怨 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ(26.99±5.25젏)蹂대떎 넂븯쑝硫 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(23.73±5.43젏)蹂대떎룄 넂寃 굹궗떎(F=13.147, p=0.001). PMCSQ_Ego뒗 떒泥 醫낅ぉ(28.76±7.73젏)씠 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ(25.33±7.65젏)怨 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ(26.60±8.54젏)蹂대떎 넂븯怨 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ(22.91±7.04젏)蹂대떎룄 넂 寃껋쓣 솗씤븯떎(F=10.705, p=0.001).

Table 2 . The difference of each variable

VariableSpeed/powera (n=201)Enduranceb (n=154)Motor skillc (n=119)Teamd (n=93)F (p)Post hoc
PEAS15.51±6.3414.58±7.1313.71±6.2516.34±6.413.459 (0.016)a, d>c
d>b, c
SOQ_Com22.1±4.1622.38±4.5922.85±4.9621.72±4.031.130 (0.336)-
SOQ_Win12.62±2.1012.06±2.4112.24±2.6712.51±1.911.970 (0.117)-
SOQ_Goal21.26±3.0220.73±3.3321.37±3.6520.27±3.212.824 (0.038)a, c>d
TEOSQ_Task26.27±5.3126.99±5.2528.28±5.5523.73±5.4313.147 (0.001)c>a, b>d
TEOSQ_Ego10.19±2.6710.19±2.6310.33±2.569.49±2.572.083 (0.101)-
PMCSQ_Task58.83±9.6158.79±9.3658.02±10.7658.68±8.460.206 (0.893)-
PMCSQ_Ego25.33±7.6526.60±8.5422.91±7.0428.76±7.7310.705 (0.001)d>a, b>c

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

PEAS: Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale, SOQ: Sport Orientation Questionnaire, TEOSQ: Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, PMCSQ: Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, Com: competition-oriented, Win: win-oriented, Goal: goal-oriented, Task: task-oriented, Ego: ego-oriented.



醫낅ぉ 踰붿<蹂 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 뼱뼚븳 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗吏瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵(Table 3), 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ TEOSQ_Task (β=–0.195, p=0.008) SOQ_Win (β=–0.146, p=0.044)씠 PEAS뿉 遺(–)쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗뒗뜲, 씠윭븳 쉶洹紐⑦삎 쑀쓽븯떎怨 뙋떒릺뿀쑝굹(F=8.338, p=0.001) 遺꾩궛꽕紐낅젰씠 6.8%씤 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ TEOSQ_Task (β=–0.257, p=0.001)씠 PEAS뿉 遺(–)쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝굹 PMCSQ_Ego (β=0.189, p=0.016)뒗 젙(竊)쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀怨, 씠윭븳 쉶洹紐⑦삎쓽 遺꾩궛꽕紐낅젰 8.8%쑝濡 굹궗떎(F=8.424, p=0.001). 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ PMCSQ_Task (β=–0.256, p=0.005)留뚯씠 PEAS뿉 遺(–)쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀怨(遺꾩궛꽕紐낅젰=5.8%, F=8.230, p=0.005), 떒泥 醫낅ぉ뿉꽌룄 SOQ_ Goal (β=–0.226, p=0.029)留뚯씠 PEAS뿉 遺(–)쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎(遺꾩궛꽕紐낅젰=5.1%, F=4.895, p=0.029).

Table 3 . Stepwise multiple linear regression for Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale

SportIndependent variableBSEβt (p)R2Adjusted R2F (p)dfVIF
Speed/power0.0780.0688.338 (0.001)1,198
Constant27.1822.9689.157 (0.001)
TEOSQ_Task−0.2330.086−0.195−2.700 (0.008)1.116
SOQ_Win−0.4400.217−0.146−2.029 (0.044)1.116
Endurance0.1000.0888.424 (0.001)1,151
Constant19.8253.3335.949 (0.001)
TEOSQ_Task−0.3500.105−0.257−3.333 (0.001)1.000
PMCSQ_Ego0.1580.0640.1892.446 (0.016)1.000
Motor skill0.0660.0588.230 (0.005)1,117
Constant22.3503.0647.294 (0.001)
PMCSQ_Task−0.1490.052−0.256−2.869 (0.005)1.000
Team0.0510.0414.895 (0.029)1,91
Constant25.4674.1746.101 (0.001)
SOQ_Goal−0.4500.203−0.226−2.212 (0.029)1.000

SE: standard error, df: degree of freedom, VIF: variance inflation factor, SOQ: Sport orientation questionnaire, TEOSQ: Task and ego orientation in sport questionnaire, PMCSQ: Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2, Win: win-oriented, Goal: goal-oriented, Task: task-oriented, Ego: ego-oriented.


怨 李

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 븳援泥댁쑁븰援먯뿉 옱븰 以묒씤 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔쓽 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇뿉 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤씤 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤씤 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 뼱뼚븳 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗吏 솗씤븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 洹 寃곌낵, 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ怨 떒泥 醫낅ぉ 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎 PEAS媛 넂븘 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿븳 꽦뼢쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗怨, 떒泥 醫낅ぉ 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎룄 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿븿쓣 蹂댁떎. 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ怨 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ 떒泥 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢 以 紐⑺몴 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 媛뺥븯寃 굹궗怨, 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ怨 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦 以 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦씠 媛뺥븳 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀쑝硫, 떒泥 醫낅ぉ 떎瑜 醫낅ぉ 踰붿<蹂대떎 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲 以 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븳 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 삉븳, 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦 以 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦怨 듅由 吏뼢꽦씠 利앷븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐吏뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗怨, 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦 以 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦씠 利앷븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐議뚯쑝굹 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲 以 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿빐吏뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ 吏媛곷맂 룞湲곕텇쐞湲 以 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐議뚭퀬, 떒泥 醫낅ぉ 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 吏뼢꽦 以 紐⑺몴 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 利앷븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺븿쓣 蹂댁떎.

룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞瑜 삁痢≫븷 닔 엳뒗 媛뺣젰븳 씤옄濡 븣젮졇 엳怨, 씠윭븳 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄瑜 젙웾쟻쑝濡 遺꾩꽍븯怨좎옄 Petroczi 벑19씠 媛쒕컻븳 PEAS媛 떎뼇븳 뿰援ъ뿉 솢슜릺怨 엳떎. 援궡 援媛몴 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 떎떆븳 뿰援22뿉꽌뒗 뒪뵾뱶 뙆썙瑜 以묒슂떆 븯뒗 醫낅ぉ 꽑닔뱾쓽 PEAS 젏닔媛 吏援щ젰씠 슂援щ릺뒗 醫낅ぉ怨 떒泥 醫낅ぉ쓽 꽑닔뱾蹂대떎 넂寃 굹궗怨, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ씠 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎 PEAS媛 넂 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뼱 꽑뻾뿰援ъ쓽 寃곌낵 쑀궗븯뒗뜲, 씠뒗 닚媛꾩쟻씤 뒪뵾뱶 洹쇰젰쓣 궗슜븯뒗 醫낅ぉ 꽑닔뱾 떎瑜 醫낅ぉ 꽑닔뱾뿉 鍮꾪빐 쁺뼇蹂댁땐젣쓽 궗슜鍮덈룄媛 넂쑝誘濡 씠윭븳 꽑닔뱾씠 寃쎄린젰 븯 諛 遺덉븞븳 떖由ъ긽깭瑜 寃쏀뿕븯寃 릺硫 룄븨 뻾룞뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳떎怨 븳 寃껉낵 愿젴씠 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎23. 洹몃윭굹, 泥냼뀈 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 룄븨뿉 븳 깭룄瑜 솗씤븳 뿰援20뿉꽌뒗 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙媛 슂援щ릺뒗 醫낅ぉ蹂대떎 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ怨 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ쓽 PEAS媛 넂 寃껋쑝濡 굹굹 醫낅ぉ뿉꽌 슂援щ릺뒗 듅꽦肉 븘땲씪 굹씠 삉븳 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷릺硫, 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 씤援ы넻怨꾪븰쟻씤 듅꽦源뚯 怨좊젮븯뿬 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤쓣 遺꾩꽍빐빞 븷 븘슂媛 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

뒪룷痢 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢씠 슫룞꽑닔뱾씠 媛쒖씤쟻쑝濡 洹몃뱾쓽 紐⑺몴瑜 떖꽦븯湲 쐞빐 끂젰븯뒗 꽦뼢쑝濡, 씠윭븳 꽦뼢 슫룞꽑닔쓽 룄븨뿉 븳 깭룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔룄 엳떎24. 寃쎌웳뿉꽌 씠湲곕뒗 寃껋쓣 紐⑺몴濡 븯뒗 듅由 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 넂 꽑닔뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞 뜑슧 諛젒븳 愿젴씠 엳쓣 寃껋씠씪怨 젣湲곕릺뿀怨24, 옄븘 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 媛뺥븳 꽑닔룄 씤蹂대떎 슦썡븳 뒫젰쓣 엯利앺븯뒗 뜲 二쇰줈 愿떖쓣 媛吏怨 엳쑝誘濡 룄븨 뻾룞怨 뿰愿꽦씠 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 蹂댁씤떎12,25. 洹몃윭굹, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ뿉꽌 듅由 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐吏뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹굹 꽑뻾뿰援ъ 긽諛섎맂 寃곌낵瑜 蹂댁怨, 援궡 씪耳 醫낅ぉ 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븳 뿰援8뿉꽌뒗 삤엳젮 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢씠 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂吏 븡뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뼱, 援궡 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔媛 吏땶 듅꽦씠씪 媛꾩<븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 異붽쟻쑝濡, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ 듅由 吏뼢꽦뼢怨 븿猿 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦뼢씠 넂쓣닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뾼寃⑺븿쓣 蹂댁怨, 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ 삉븳 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦씠 利앷븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐吏뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 씠뒗 怨쇱젣 吏뼢꽦씠 넂쓣닔濡 룄븨 꽦뼢씠 궙븘吏꾨떎怨 二쇱옣맂 꽑뻾뿰援ъ쓽 寃곌낵12 愿젴씠 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷릺怨, 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢쓽 븯쐞슂씤 愿怨꾨 솗씤븿쑝濡쒖뜥 援궡 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔뿉寃 슚怨쇱쟻씠怨 紐⑺몴吏뼢쟻씤 諛섎룄븨 봽濡쒓렇옩 쟻슜쓣 뮮諛쏆묠븯뒗 諛⑸쾿쓣 젣怨듯븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎.

룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 肄붿튂 諛 媛먮룆쓽 뻾쐞뿉 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏆븘 삎꽦릺뒗 꽦痍⑥ 愿젴맂 븰뒿솚寃쎌쓣 쓽誘명븯뒗뜲11, 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕낫떎 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 삎꽦릺硫 꽑닔뱾 寃쎌웳뿉꽌 듅由ъ뿉留 吏묒갑븯寃 릺怨, 뙣諛곗뿉 빐 吏굹移 옄湲곕퉬뙋쟻씤 꽦뼢쓣 蹂댁씠湲 븣臾몄뿉 룄븨뿉 빐 愿븳 꽦뼢쓣 蹂댁씤떎怨 븯떎26. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 吏援щ젰 醫낅ぉ 옄븘 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿빐吏뒗 諛섎㈃ 슫룞湲곗닠 醫낅ぉ 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 뾼寃⑺빐吏뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 솗씤븳 뿰援12뿉꽌뒗 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 궙쓣닔濡 룄븨뿉 愿븳 꽦뼢쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 援궡 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 吏꾪뻾븳 뿰援10뿉꽌룄 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곌 媛뺥븷닔濡 룄븨뿉 빐 뾼寃⑺븳 꽦뼢쓣 蹂댁뿬 蹂 뿰援ъ 쑀궗븳 寃곌낵媛 룄異쒕릺뿀떎. 怨쇱젣 吏뼢 꽦뼢씠 궙 꽑닔뱾 肄붿튂 遺紐, 룞猷 諛 렂쓽 쇅遺쟻씤 湲곕移섏뿉 뜑슧 誘쇨컧븯寃 諛섏쓳븯怨, 씠뒗 諛섏궗쉶쟻 뻾룞怨 룄뜒쟻 씠깉 벑 遺젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂寃 릺뼱 룄븨 뻾룞뿉 쁺뼢쓣 以 닔 엳쑝誘濡10, 肄붿튂 諛 뒪뀦뱾뿉寃뚮룄 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곗 룄븨 뻾쐞쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 援먯쑁쓣 넻븳 꽑닔쓽 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 遺꾩쐞湲 議곗꽦씠 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

WADA뿉꽌 떆뻾븯뒗 二쇱슂 諛섎룄븨 쟾왂 룄븨寃궗瑜 넻빐 씠猷⑥뼱吏吏留, 뿕由ы듃 뒪룷痢좎뿉꽌 吏냽쟻씤 諛섎룄븨 슚怨쇰 嫄곕몢湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 슚怨쇱쟻씤 諛섎룄븨 援먯쑁씠 寃곌뎅 洹 以묒떖쓣 李⑥빐빞 븷 寃껋씠떎. 듅엳, 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔뱾씠 떎젣濡 궗슜븯뒗 湲덉빟臾쇱뿉 븳 젙솗븯怨 媛앷쟻씤 젙蹂대 뼸湲 뼱젮슫 쁽떎쓣 怨좊젮븳떎硫, 꽑닔뱾쓽 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇怨 룄븨 뻾룞뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤 벑뿉 븳 遺꾩꽍씠 꽑뻾릺뼱빞 븷 寃껋씠怨, 씠瑜 洹쇨굅濡 媛옣 슚쑉쟻씤 諛섎룄븨 援먯쑁 봽濡쒓렇옩씠 留덈젴릺뼱빞 븷 寃껋씠떎. 뵲씪꽌, 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 21媛 뒪룷痢 醫낅ぉ쓣 醫낅ぉ뿉꽌 슂援щ릺뒗 뿭웾뿉 뵲씪 4媛쒖쓽 踰붿<濡 援щ텇븯怨, 醫낅ぉ 踰붿<蹂 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄 씠뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤쓣 遺꾩꽍븿쑝濡쒖뜥, 醫낅ぉ 듅꽦뿉 뵲씪 룄븨 꽦뼢뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤씤 꽦痍⑤ぉ몴 꽦뼢怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤씤 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕 솗씤븯떎. 룞湲곕텇쐞湲곕뒗 떆媛꾩씠 吏궓뿉 뵲씪 蹂솕맆 닔 엳쑝誘濡 醫낅떒쟻 떎뿕 뿰援(longitudinal or experimental designs)룄 븘슂븯떎怨 븷 닔 엳쑝굹17, 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇怨 떎뼇븳 떖由ъ궗쉶븰쟻씤 슂씤쓽 떒닚븳 愿怨꾨쭔쓣 솗씤븯뒗 슒떒뿰援 꽕怨(cross-sectional design)濡 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 뼢썑 룄븨 꽦뼢뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤怨 뜑遺덉뼱 긽솴쟻 슂씤쓣 룷븿븯뿬 슂씤뱾 媛꾩쓽 吏곸젒쟻씤 愿怨꾩 븿猿 留ㅺ컻슚怨쇰 솗씤븯怨, 뒪룷痢 醫낅ぉ怨 뿰졊 諛 꽦蹂꾩뿉 뵲瑜 룄븨 꽦뼢怨 뻾쐞뿉 誘몄튂뒗 슚怨쇰 遺꾩꽍븳떎硫, 씤援ы넻怨꾪븰쟻 듅꽦怨 뒪룷痢 듅꽦쓣 紐⑤몢 怨좊젮븳 슚쑉쟻씤 諛섎룄븨 쟾왂쓣 留덈젴븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

寃곕줎쑝濡, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 븳援泥댁쑁븰援먯뿉 옱븰 以묒씤 21媛 醫낅ぉ 뿕由ы듃 꽑닔쓽 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇뿉 媛쒖씤쟻 슂씤怨 궗쉶솚寃쎌쟻 슂씤씠 뼱뼚븳 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗吏 솗씤븳 寃곌낵, 뒪뵾뱶/뙆썙 醫낅ぉ怨 떒泥 醫낅ぉ씠 룄븨뿉 빐 뜑 愿븿쓣 蹂댁怨, 醫낅ぉ씠 슂援ы븯뒗 듅꽦뿉 뵲씪 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 슂씤씠 떎뼇븯寃 솗씤릺뿀떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 룄븨 뻾쐞 吏곸젒쟻씤 뿰愿씠 엳뒗 룄븨뿉 븳 궗怨좊갑떇 諛 깭룄뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 떖由‧궗쉶쟻 硫붿빱땲利섏뿉 빐 깉濡쒖슫 떆媛곸쓣 젣怨듯븯怨 뼢썑 醫낅ぉ쓽 듅꽦쓣 怨좊젮븳 諛섎룄븨 쟾왂 留덈젴뿉 쑀슜븳 젙蹂닿 맆 寃껋씠떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization: EK. Data curation: HP, HC. Funding acquisition: EK. Writing–original draft: EK, HP, HC. Writing–review & editing: all authors.

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