search for



Current Status of Physical Activity According to the Socioeconomic Status of Korean Adults: Based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2018
Korean J Sports Med 2022;40:22-29
Published online March 1, 2022;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2022.40.1.22
© 2022 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Yang Hei1, Jiyeon Yoon1, Hoyong Sung1, Jungjun Lim1, Yeon Soo Kim1,2

1Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Seoul National University, Seoul,
2Institute of Sport Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea
Correspondence to: Yeon Soo Kim
Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Seoul National University, Sports and Culture Research Bldg 71-1, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Tel: +82-2-880-7794, Fax: +82-2-872-2867, E-mail: kys0101@snu.ac.kr
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea
(誘몃옒삎 뒪룷痢 씤옱뼇꽦 援먯쑁뿰援щ떒).
Received July 16, 2021; Revised September 1, 2021; Accepted January 26, 2022.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: The purpose was to estimate the socioeconomic status and physical activity level of Korean adults.
Methods: A total of 27,358 subjects aged over 19 years were included from the 2014?2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The socioeconomic status, the main independent inheritance in this study, was used as the household income (first quartile=highest income) and education level (elementary, middle school, high school, and college graduates) variables as the quartile categorical variable values. We perform a regression analysis for sample survey data using the SURVEYREG procedure.
Results: In physical activity, If the household income level in men and the education level in women increased, weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity was likely to be increased significantly (p for trend < 0.0001). In terms of domains of physical activity, if the level of household income and education level increased, the amount of physical activity at leisure time was likely to be increased in both men and women. On the contrary, the amount of physical activity spent on transportation was decreased. However, the relationship was not presented in the work-related moderate to vigorous physical activity (p for trend < 0.0001).
Conclusion: The socioeconomic status, that is, to climb higher household income levels and education levels, was positively associated with physical activity in a representative Korean population. To reduce the health care costs of chronic diseases caused by lack of physical activity, the countries and communities provide opportunities for more physical activity to people.
Keywords : Socioeconomic status, Physical activity, Household income, Education, KNHANES, Health
꽌 濡

젣 1–4李 궛뾽쁺紐낆쑝濡 씤빐 궗엺뱾쓽 궣 뜑 렪빐졇 솕쑝굹1, 궣쓽 留롮 遺遺꾩쓣 湲곌퀎 湲곗닠씠 泥댄븯硫댁꽌 떊泥댄솢룞怨 뿉꼫吏 냼鍮꾧 媛먯냼빐 솕떎. 삉븳 理쒓렐 肄붾줈굹諛붿씠윭뒪 媛먯뿼利-2019濡 씤빐 利앷븳 삩씪씤 媛뺤쓽 옄깮 洹쇰Т뒗 씠윭븳 쁽긽쓣 뜑슧 媛냽솕븯怨 엳떎. 씠泥섎읆 떎뼇븳 슂씤뱾뿉 쓽빐 諛쒖깮븯뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 遺議깆 鍮꾩쟾뿼꽦 吏덈퀝쑝濡 씤븳 궗留앹쓽 二쇱슂 쐞뿕 슂냼 以 븯굹씠떎1. 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 留롮씠 븯뒗 궗엺뿉 鍮꾪빐 떊泥댄솢룞씠 遺議깊븳 궗엺쓽 궗留 쐞뿕 20%뿉꽌 30%源뚯 利앷븳떎1. 떊泥댄솢룞씠 遺議깊븯寃 릺硫 뼱由곗씠 泥냼뀈쓽 寃쎌슦 鍮꾨쭔怨 떖옣 궗 遺덈웾뿉 뵲瑜 嫄닿컯, 泥대젰, 궗쉶쟻 뻾룞, 닔硫 떆媛 媛먯냼뿉 쁺뼢쓣 二쇰ʼn, 꽦씤쓽 寃쎌슦 떖삁愿吏덊솚, 븫 諛 젣2삎 떦눊蹂 諛쒕퀝瑜좉낵 珥 궗留앸쪧, 떖삁愿吏덊솚 궗留앸쪧 諛 븫 궗留앸쪧 利앷뿉 쁺뼢쓣 以떎2,3.

2016뀈룄뿉 쟾 꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 18꽭 씠긽 꽦씤쓽 28% (궓꽦 23%, 뿬꽦 32%)媛 떊泥댄솢룞 遺議깆씠뿀떎4. 利, 쟾 꽭怨 꽦씤쓽 28%뒗 留ㅼ< 理쒖냼 150遺꾩쓽 以묎컯룄 삉뒗 75遺꾩쓽 寃⑸젹븳 媛뺣룄쓽 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 沅뚯옣 궗빆5쓣 異⑹”븯吏 紐삵뻽떎4. 怨좎냼뱷 援媛뿉꽌뒗 궓꽦쓽 26%, 뿬꽦쓽 35%媛 떊泥댄솢룞씠 遺議깊븳 諛섎㈃, 냼뱷 援媛뿉꽌뒗 궓꽦쓽 12%, 뿬꽦쓽 24%媛 떊泥댄솢룞씠 遺議깊뻽떎6. 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以씠 궙븘吏뒗 寃껋 蹂댄넻 援誘 珥앹깮궛씠 넂븘吏뒗 寃껉낵 뿰愿꽦씠 엳떎7. 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 媛먯냼뒗 援誘 珥앹깮궛肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 뿬媛솢룞, 씠룞닔떒怨쇰룄 뿰愿씠 엳떎. 뿬媛 룞븞 솢룞븯吏 븡怨 吏곸옣怨 吏묒뿉꽌 븠븘꽌 븯뒗 뻾룞뿉 쓽빐 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 媛먯냼媛 諛쒖깮븯硫, 嫄몄뼱꽌 씠룞븯嫄곕굹 옄쟾嫄곕 怨 씠룞븯뒗 寃껊낫떎 옄룞李⑥ 媛숈 닔룞쟻 援먰넻닔떒쓽 궗슜씠 利앷븯硫댁꽌 떊泥댄솢룞씠 遺議깊빐吏꾨떎7.

궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以 湲곕 닔紐낆뿉源뚯 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 以묒슂븳 吏몴씠떎. 씠쟾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 媛怨 냼뱷씠 넂쓣닔濡 湲곕 닔紐낆씠 뒛뼱궗떎怨 븳떎. 2011뀈遺꽣 2015뀈源뚯 냼뱷씠 븯쐞 1%씤 궓꽦쓽 룊洹 닔紐낆 70.6꽭, 긽쐞 1%쓽 궓꽦 룊洹 닔紐낆씠 84.4꽭濡 13.8 뀈쓽 李⑥씠媛 굹怨, 븯쐞 1%쓽 뿬꽦 78.0꽭, 긽쐞 1%쓽 뿬꽦 86.4꽭濡 8.4뀈쓽 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁떎8. 젙湲곗쟻씤 떊泥댄솢룞씠 湲곕 닔紐낆쓣 뒛由 닔 엳떎뒗 寃껋씠 留롮 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 엯利앸릺뿀떎9-13. 쑀읇 28媛 援媛뿉꽌 18–64꽭 꽦씤쓽 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以쓣 궡렣遊ㅼ쓣 븣, 媛援 냼뱷씠 넂怨 怨좎꽌 궔遺뿉 뼱젮씠 뾾뒗 쓳떟옄뱾怨 援먯쑁 닔以씠 넂 쓳떟옄뱾씠 怨좎꽌 吏遺덉뿉 뼱젮씠 엳嫄곕굹 븰젰씠 궙 쓳떟옄뱾뿉 鍮꾪빐 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬쑉씠 넂븯떎14. 씠쟾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 뿬媛 솢룞뿉꽌 쑀궗븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씤 諛섎㈃15, 씪濡 씤븳 떊泥댄솢룞 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 꽦씤뿉꽌 뜑 넂븯떎16. 쑀읇씤쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援щ뱾 엳吏留 븳援씤쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援ш 븘吏곸 뾾뒗 떎젙씠떎.

뵲씪꽌 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 븳援 꽦씤쓽 떊泥댄솢룞 媛援 냼뱷, 援먯쑁 닔以 벑 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以怨 뼱뼡 愿젴꽦씠 엳뒗吏 궡렣蹂닿퀬옄 븳援쓽 몴쟻씤 뜲씠꽣씤 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 옄猷뚮 씠슜빐꽌 遺꾩꽍뻽떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

1. 뿰援щ긽

援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗뒗 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쬆吏꾨쾿 젣16議곗뿉 洹쇨굅븯뿬 떆뻾븯뒗 援誘쇱쓽 嫄닿컯뻾깭, 留뚯꽦吏덊솚 쑀蹂 쁽솴, 떇뭹 諛 쁺뼇꽠痍 떎깭뿉 愿븳 踰뺤젙 議곗궗씠硫, 넻怨꾨쾿 젣17議곗뿉 洹쇨굅븳 젙遺 吏젙넻怨(듅씤踰덊샇 젣117002샇)씠떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 젣6, 7湲(2014–2018뀈) 옄猷뚮 씠슜빐꽌 遺꾩꽍뻽떎. 2014–2018뀈 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗뿉 李몄뿬븳 39,199紐 以묒뿉꽌 떊泥댄솢룞 꽕臾몄 誘몄쓳떟, 19꽭 씠븯, 媛議 냼뱷 닔以, 援먯쑁 닔以, 泥댁쭏웾吏닔(body mass index, BMI)媛 뾾뒗 옄瑜 젣쇅븳 27,358紐낆쓣 긽옄濡 꽑젙븯떎(Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Flow diagram of participants excluded. KNHANES: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, GPAQ: Global Physical Activity Questionnaire.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 궗슜븳 紐⑤뱺 옄猷뚮뒗 吏덈퀝愿由щ낯遺 뿰援ъ쑄由ъ떖쓽쐞썝쉶쓽 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븘 닔뻾븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 닔吏묓븯떎(No. 2013- 12EXP-03-5C, 2018-01-03-P-A). 2015, 2016, 2017뀈룄뿉뒗 吏덈퀝愿由щ낯遺 뿰援ъ쑄由 떖쓽쐞썝쉶쓽 쓽寃ъ뿉 뵲씪 떖쓽瑜 諛쏆 븡怨 닔뻾릺뿀怨, 2018뀈遺꽣 씤泥댁쑀옒臾 닔吏, 썝떆옄猷 젣3옄 젣怨 벑쓣 怨좊젮븳 뿰援ъ쑄由 떖쓽瑜 옱媛쒗뻽떎.

2. 씪諛섏쟻 듅꽦 諛 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 二쇱슂 룆由쎈닔씤 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以쓣 굹궡뒗 吏몴뒗 媛援 냼뱷怨 援먯쑁 닔以 蹂닔濡쒖꽌 4遺꾩쐞쓽 踰붿<삎 蹂닔 媛믪쓣 궗슜븯떎. 媛援 냼뱷 ‘븯’, ‘以묓븯’, ‘以묒긽’, ‘긽’쑝濡, 援먯쑁 닔以 ‘珥덈벑븰援 議몄뾽 씠븯’, ‘以묓븰援 議몄뾽(以묒「)’, ‘怨좊벑븰援 議몄뾽(怨좎「)’, ‘븰援 議몄뾽(議) 씠긽’쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯떎. 깮솢뻾깭 吏몴뒗 썡媛 쓬二쇱쑉, 쁽옱 씉뿰쑉쓣 궗슜븯떎. 썡媛 쓬二쇱쑉 理쒓렐 1뀈 룞븞 븳 떖뿉 1쉶 씠긽 쓬二쇳븳 궗엺쓽 鍮꾩쑉쓣 쓽誘명븯硫, 쁽옱 씉뿰쑉 룊깮 떞諛 5媛(100媛쒕퉬) 씠긽 뵾썱怨, 쁽옱 떞諛곕 뵾슦뒗 궗엺쓽 遺꾩쑉濡 젙쓽븯떎. 鍮꾨쭔 蹂닔뒗 BMI媛 18.5 kg/m2 씠븯씤 寃쎌슦 泥댁쨷, 18.5 kg/m2 씠긽, 23 kg/m2 誘몃쭔씪 寃쎌슦 젙긽, 23 kg/m2 씠긽, 25 kg/m2 誘몃쭔씪 寃쎌슦 怨쇱껜以, 25 kg/m2 씠긽씪 寃쎌슦 鍮꾨쭔쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯떎. 꽦蹂꾩뿉 뵲씪 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以蹂 떊泥댄솢룞 떎깭瑜 鍮꾧탳븯떎.

3. 떊泥댄솢룞

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 二쇱슂 蹂씤씤 떊泥댄솢룞 Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) 꽕臾몄17濡 痢≪젙븯떎. GPAQ뒗 꽭怨꾨낫嫄닿린援(World Health Organization, WHO)뿉꽌 媛쒕컻븳 떊泥댄솢룞 룊媛 꽕臾몄濡 쟾 꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 궗슜릺怨 엳떎. 꽕臾몄 臾명빆뿉꽌 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 씪-以묎컯룄, 씪-怨좉컯룄, 옣냼 씠룞, 뿬媛-以묎컯룄, 뿬媛-怨좉컯룄濡 痢≪젙븯떎. 二쇨컙 떊泥댄솢룞 씪닔 븯猷 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺꾩쑝濡 솚궛)쓣 怨깊빐꽌 二쇰떦 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛꾩쓣 궗슜뻽떎. 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以 二쇰떦 300遺 씠긽쓽 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 寃쎌슦 ‘highly active’, 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽 300遺 誘몃쭔쓽 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 寃쎌슦 ‘active’, 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔쓽 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 寃쎌슦 ‘insufficiently active’, 二쇰떦 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 쟾 떎떆븯吏 븡 寃쎌슦 ‘inactive’濡 援щ텇븯떎.

4. 넻怨 泥섎━

넻怨 泥섎━뒗 SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) 봽濡쒓렇옩쓣 씠슜븯떎. 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗뒗 蹂듯빀 몴蹂 꽕怨(complex sampling design) 옄猷뚯씠誘濡, 痢듯솕蹂닔(kstrata), 吏묐씫 蹂닔(議곗궗援, psu), 媛以묒튂(weight)瑜 궗슜븯뿬 蹂듯빀 몴蹂몄꽕怨 諛⑸쾿뿉 뵲씪 遺꾩꽍븯떎.

긽옄쓽 씪諛섏쟻 듅꽦뿉꽌 踰붿<삎 蹂닔뒗 鍮덈룄닔(n) 洹몃9 궡 鍮꾩쑉(%)쓣 젣떆븯怨, 뿰냽삎 蹂닔쓽 寃쎌슦 룊洹좉낵 몴以삤李⑤ 援ы븯쑝硫, PROC SURVEYREG瑜 넻빐 援 媛 李⑥씠瑜 寃젙븯떎. 꽦蹂꾩뿉 뵲瑜 痢듯솕遺꾩꽍쓣 븷 븣 뿰졊, 鍮꾨쭔 뿬遺, 썡媛 쓬二쇱쑉, 쁽옱 씉뿰쑉쓣 蹂댁젙븯떎. 媛援 냼뱷 닔以 痢듯솕遺꾩꽍쓣 븷 븣 媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以씠 꽌濡 샎 蹂씤씠 릺吏 븡湲 쐞빐 援먯쑁 닔以쓣 蹂댁젙뻽怨, 援먯쑁 닔以쓣 痢듯솕遺꾩꽍븷 븣 뿭떆 媛援 냼뱷 닔以쓣 蹂댁젙븯떎. 醫낅쪟蹂 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 遺꾩꽍븷 븣留 吏곸뾽쓣 異붽빐꽌 蹂댁젙뻽떎. 蹂닔蹂 듅꽦뿉 뵲瑜 룊洹 蹂솕瑜 솗씤븯湲 쐞븳 p for trend 媛믪 PROC SURVEYREG 遺꾩꽍쓣 넻빐 궛異쒗븯떎.

寃 怨

뿰援 긽옄쓽 씪諛섏쟻 듅꽦뿉 뵲瑜 遺꾪룷瑜 꽦蹂꾨줈 굹늻뼱 Table 1뿉 젣떆븯떎. 쟾泥댁쟻쑝濡 蹂 븣 긽옄뒗 뿬꽦씠 궓꽦蹂대떎 留롮븯쑝硫(궓꽦 11,833紐, 뿬꽦 15,525紐), 30 40媛 긽쟻쑝濡 留롮븯떎. 궓 愿怨꾩뾾씠 媛援 냼뱷씠 利앷븿뿉 뵲씪 洹몃9 씤닔媛 긽쟻쑝濡 젏젏 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢씠 엳뿀떎. 媛援 냼뱷씠 젣씪 궙 洹몃9씠 궓꽦 13.3%, 뿬꽦 16.9%怨, 媛援 냼뱷씠 젣씪 넂 洹몃9씠 궓꽦 32.8%, 뿬꽦 29.6%떎. 援먯쑁 닔以뿉꽌 以묒「 洹몃9씠 궓꽦 8.4%, 뿬꽦 9.3%濡 젣씪 쟻뿀怨, 議 씠긽 洹몃9 궓꽦 43.3%, 뿬꽦 36.4%濡 젣씪 留롮븯떎. 뿬꽦뿉 鍮꾪빐 궓꽦씠 洹쒖튃쟻쑝濡 쓬二쇳븯뒗 寃쎌슦媛 뜑 留롮븯떎. 쁽옱 씉뿰쑉룄 궓꽦씠 뿬꽦蹂대떎 썾뵮 留롮븯떎. 궓꽦뿉꽌뒗 泥댁쨷援곗씠 2.7%濡 젣씪 쟻뿀怨, 鍮꾨쭔援곗씠 40.4%濡 젣씪 留롮븯떎. 뿬꽦뿉꽌뒗 泥댁쨷援곗씠 5.8%濡 젣씪 쟻뿀怨, 젙긽 泥댁쨷援곗씠 46.5%濡 젣씪 留롮븯떎. 떊泥댄솢룞 以 二쇰떦 300遺 씠긽쓽 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 洹몃9 궓꽦 6.5%, 뿬꽦 2.1%濡 媛옣 쟻뿀怨, 二쇰떦 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞씠 150遺 誘몃쭔 洹몃9 궓꽦 53.5%, 뿬꽦 63.1%濡 媛옣 留롮븯떎.

Table 1 . Characteristics of study subjects by sex

CharacteristicMenWomen
No. of subjects11,83315,525
Age (yr)
19–291,518 (19.7)1,820 (17.3)
30–493,947 (39.6)5,323 (37.9)
50–643,323 (26.9)4,544 (27.2)
≥653,045 (13.7)3,838 (17.5)
Household income*
Low2,014 (13.3)3,097 (16.9)
Middle–low2,846 (23.1)3,848 (24.5)
Middle–high3,358 (30.9)4,228 (29.0)
High3,586 (32.8)4,304 (29.6)
Education
≤Elementary school1,788 (9.9)4,034 (19.9)
Middle school1,251 (8.4)1,590 (9.3)
High school4,128 (38.4)4,799 (34.4)
≥College4,642 (43.3)5,069 (36.4)
Regular alcohol consumption
No3,412 (26.7)9,112 (55.2)
Yes8,357 (73.3)6,325 (44.8)
Current smoking
No7,602 (61.8)14,684 (94.5)
Yes4,162 (38.2)742 (5.5)
Obesity§
Underweight306 (2.7)767 (5.8)
Normal3,768 (31.5)6,874 (46.5)
Overweight3,065 (25.3)3,248 (20.0)
Obese4,694 (40.4)4,636 (27.8)
Physical activity
Highly active640 (6.5)281 (2.1)
Active1,254 (12.2)897 (6.5)
Insufficiently6,333 (53.5)9,564 (63.1)
Inactive3,606 (27.7)4,783 (28.4)

Values are presented as number only or number (%).

*Low (first quartile), middle–low (second quartile), middle–high (third quartile), and high (fourth quartile). ‘Yes’ meant drank more than once a month over the past year. ‘Yes’ meant smoked >100 cigarettes over lifetime and still smoking. §‘Underweight’ meant body mass index (BMI) <18.5 kg/m2, ‘normal’ meant 18.5 kg/m2<BMI<23 kg/m2, ‘overweight’ meant 23 kg/m2≤BMI≤25 kg/m2, and ‘obese’ meant BMI>25 kg/m2.



媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以뿉 뵲瑜 二쇨컙 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 Table 2뿉 젣떆븯떎. 二쇨컙 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉꽌 궓꽦 媛援 냼뱷 닔以, 뿬꽦 援먯쑁 닔以씠 利앷븷닔濡 쑀쓽븯寃 利앷븯떎(p for trend <0.0001). 援먯쑁닔以뿉꽌 議 씠긽 궓꽦 洹몃9쓣 젣쇅븳 궓 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 媛援 냼뱷 닔以씠굹 援먯쑁 닔以씠 삱씪媛덉닔濡 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 利앷뻽떎. 궓꽦쓽 援먯쑁 닔以 以 怨좎「 洹몃9쓽 떊泥댄솢룞씠 젣씪 넂 씠쑀뒗 쁺뿭蹂 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 젙由ы븳 Table 3뿉꽌 李얠쓣 닔 엳떎. 궓꽦 怨좎「 洹몃9 씪怨 愿젴맂 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 젣씪 留롮 寃껋쑝濡 굹솕떎.

Table 2 . Total physical activity according to household income and education level

VariablePhysical activity (min/wk)

MenWomen


MeanSEp for trendMeanSEp for trend
Household income*<0.00010.3379
Low59.33.1142.01.89
Middle–low84.53.5253.21.72
Middle–high91.33.3056.31.77
High99.03.0060.11.71
Education level0.0038<0.0001
≤Elementary school52.85.0233.41.33
Middle school60.23.8746.22.09
≥College91.62.3161.81.49

SE: standard error.

*Low: first quartile, middle–low: second quartile, middle–high: third quartile, and high: fourth quartile.

p for trend was from PROC SURVEYREG analysis (SAS version 9.4 SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Adjusted for age, obesity, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and education level. Adjusted for age, obesity, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and household income.



Table 3 . Rates of participation (%) in physical activity according to household income and education level

VariableParticipation (%)

Vigorous workModerate workTransportVigorous recreationModerate recreation
Household income*
Men
Low1.76.970.68.112.8
Middle–low3.211.554.512.318.5
Middle–high2.79.248.117.222.8
High2.16.843.120.427.6
p for trend0.25150.0031<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Women
Low1.07.280.22.49.3
Middle–low0.77.175.04.412.7
Middle–high0.77.566.76.119.0
High0.76.559.89.823.1
p for trend0.97170.0031<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Education level
Men
≤Elementary school3.47.273.04.112.2
Middle school2.17.163.48.618.7
High school3.210.051.515.120.2
≥College1.87.844.120.126.3
p for trend0.00190.3863<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Women
≤Elementary school1.05.983.21.68.2
Middle school1.04.779.22.912.3
High school0.86.268.86.717.6
≥College0.68.959.88.722.0
p for trend0.0040.1023<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001

*Low (first quartile), middle–low (second quartile), middle–high (third quartile), and high (fourth quartile). Analyzed from PROC SURVEYREG analysis (SAS version 9.4; SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA); adjusted for age, obesity, job occupation, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and education level. Analyzed from PROC SURVEYREG analysis; adjusted for age, obesity, job occupation, current smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and household income.



媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以뿉 뵲瑜 珥 二쇰떦 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉꽌 媛 쁺뿭蹂 떊泥댄솢룞(씪-怨좉컯룄, 씪-以묎컯룄, 옣냼 씠룞, 뿬媛-怨좉컯룄, 뿬媛-以묎컯룄)씠 媛곴컖 珥 떊泥댄솢룞뿉꽌 李⑥븯뒗 鍮꾩쑉쓣 Table 3뿉 젣떆븯떎. 媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以씠 利앷븷닔濡 궓 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 怨좉컯룄쓽 뿬媛 솢룞, 以묎컯룄쓽 뿬媛 솢룞 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 利앷븯떎(p for trend <0.0001). 옣냼 씠룞 궓 紐⑤몢뿉꽌 媛援 냼뱷 닔以, 援먯쑁 닔以씠 利앷븷닔濡 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹솕떎(p for trend <0.0001). 븯吏留 媛援 냼뱷 닔以 諛 援먯쑁 닔以怨 씪濡 씤븳 以묎컯룄, 怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 궗씠쓽 쑀쓽븳 愿怨꾨뒗 굹굹吏 븡븯떎.

怨 李

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以쓣 굹궡뒗 吏몴씤 媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以씠 삱씪媛덉닔濡 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 利앷븯뒗 寃쏀뼢씠 굹궗떎. WHO쓽 옄猷뚯뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 怨좎냼뱷 援媛쓽 떊泥댄솢룞 遺議깆 냼뱷 援媛뿉 鍮꾪빐 몢 諛 뜑 넂怨, 2001뀈怨 2016뀈 궗씠 怨좎냼뱷 援媛뿉꽌 떊泥댄솢룞 遺議깆 31.6%뿉꽌 36.8%濡 5% 利앷뻽떎4,18. 洹 씠쑀뒗 냼뱷 援媛뿉꽌 씪濡 씤븳 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뜑 留롪린 븣臾몄씠떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 궓꽦쓽 씪濡 씤븳 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 媛援 냼뱷 닔以씠 ‘以∙’뿉꽌 젣씪 넂 寃껋쑝濡(씪-怨좉컯룄 3.2%, 씪-以묎컯룄 11.5%) 굹궗떎(Table 3).

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 2014뀈遺꽣 2018뀈源뚯 떎뻾븳 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 젣6, 7湲 옄猷뚮 씠슜빐꽌 遺꾩꽍뻽떎. 2013뀈 씠쟾쓽 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗뒗 15–69꽭 꽦씤쓣 쐞븳 27媛 빆紐⑹쓽 옄泥 蹂닿퀬 떊泥댄솢룞 痢≪젙 꽕臾몄씤 International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)瑜 넻빐꽌 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 룊媛뻽吏留19, 2014뀈遺꽣뒗 WHO뿉꽌 媛쒕컻븳 떊泥댄솢룞 쁺뿭蹂(씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞, 옣냼 씠룞, 뿬媛 떊泥댄솢룞) 痢≪젙 꽕臾몄씤 GPAQ17瑜 씠슜빐 솕떎. IPAQ怨 떖由 GPAQ 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 醫낅쪟蹂꾨줈 援щ텇븯怨 議곗궗븯뿬 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓣 뜑 젙솗븯寃 룊媛븷 닔 엳떎(Table 3). Table 3뿉꽌 蹂 닔 엳벏씠 궓 紐⑤몢 媛援 냼뱷 닔以씠 젣씪 넂 洹몃9뿉꽌 씪濡 씤븳 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 鍮꾩쑉씠 媛옣 궙怨(궓 6.8%, 뿬 6.5%) 뿬媛 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 鍮꾩쑉씠 媛옣 넂寃 굹궗떎(궓옄 뿬媛-怨좉컯룄 20.4%, 궓옄 뿬媛-以묎컯룄 27.6%, 뿬옄 뿬媛-怨좉컯룄 9.8%, 뿬옄 뿬媛-以묎컯룄 23.1%).

Copenhagen General Population Study쓽 104,046紐 긽옄 以 10뀈 룞븞 떖삁愿吏덊솚쑝濡 궗留앺븳 7,913紐낃낵 9,846紐낆쓽 쟾씤궗留앸쪧(all-cause mortality) 뿰援щ 蹂대㈃, 뿬媛 以 떊泥댄솢룞씠 留롮쓣닔濡 떖삁愿吏덊솚 諛 쟾씤궗留앸쪧씠 媛먯냼븳 諛섎㈃ 씪濡 씤븳 떊泥댄솢룞씠 留롮쓣닔濡 쐞뿕씠 利앷븯硫, 꽌濡 룆由쎌쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튇떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯떎20. 씠윴 긽솴쓣 ‘떊泥댄솢룞쓽 뿭꽕(physical activity paradox)’씠씪怨 븳떎. 깮由ы븰쟻쑝濡 蹂 븣 뿬媛 以묒쓽 떊泥댄솢룞 씪諛섏쟻쑝濡 떖룓 諛 떊吏꾨궗 뼢긽怨 愿젴씠 엳쑝硫, 씪濡 씤븳 떊泥 솢룞 떖룓 嫄닿컯쓣 媛쒖꽑븯吏 븡뒗떎21. 뿬媛 以 떊泥댄솢룞씠 留롮쓣닔濡 떖삁愿吏덊솚 諛 쟾씤궗留앸쪧씠 媛먯냼븯誘濡 뿬媛 以묒쓽 떊泥댄솢룞씠 湲곕 닔紐낆뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳떎22. 젙웾솕맂 硫뷀 遺꾩꽍 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 궙 媛뺣룄쓽 吏곸뾽쟻 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븯뒗 궓꽦蹂대떎 넂 媛뺣룄쓽 吏곸뾽쟻 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븯뒗 궓꽦씠 紐⑤뱺 썝씤쑝濡 씤븳 궗留 쐞뿕씠 뜑 넂븯떎23. 삉븳 理쒓렐쓽 泥닿퀎쟻 臾명뿄 怨좎같뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 넂 媛뺣룄쓽 吏곸뾽쟻 떊泥댄솢룞 씪遺 嫄닿컯 寃곌낵(삁: 븫, 愿긽룞留 떖옣蹂 諛 젣2삎 떦눊蹂)쓽 쐞뿕 媛먯냼 愿젴씠 엳怨, 삉븳 쐞뿕 利앷 媛숈 嫄닿컯 寃곌낵(삁: 怨④젅뿼, 遺덈웾븳 닔硫댁쓽 吏 諛 궓꽦쓽 紐⑤뱺 썝씤 궗留)룄 愿젴씠 엳떎. 옄뱾 ‘吏곸뾽쟻 떊泥 솢룞씠 嫄닿컯뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢뿉 븳 紐낇솗븳 꽕紐낆쓣 젣怨듯븯湲 쐞빐 뜑 넂 닔以쓽 利앷굅媛 븘슂븯떎’怨 寃곕줎吏뿀떎24.

궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以 嫄닿컯 遺덊룊벑쓣 씪쑝궗 닔룄 엳떎. 嫄닿컯 遺덊룊벑 궗쉶 遺덊룊벑씠씪怨 븷 닔룄 엳쑝硫, 꽌濡 떎瑜 궗쉶 吏묐떒 媛꾩쓽 泥닿퀎쟻씤 李⑥씠瑜 媛吏 嫄닿컯 遺덊룊벑쓣 쓽誘명븳떎25. 씠쟾 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 媛쒖씤 쟻젅븳 쓬떇씠굹 뒪룷痢 옣鍮꾩쓽 援ъ엯 옄썝씠 遺議깊븯硫 뒪룷痢 떆꽕뿉 젒洹쇳븷 닔 뾾뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎26. 삉븳 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 媛쒖씤뱾 嫄닿컯븳 씪씠봽뒪씪뿉 븳 援먯쑁쟻, 떖由ъ쟻 옣踰쎌씠 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎27. 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以怨 뿰졊뿉 뵲씪꽌 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 떎瑜닿쾶 굹삩 뿰援щ룄 엳떎. 븳援 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 젣6湲 19꽭 씠긽쓽 꽦씤쓣 긽쑝濡 <45꽭쓽 젇 援곌낵 ≥45꽭쓽 끂뀈 援곗쑝濡 洹몃9쓣 굹늿 뿰援ъ뿉꽌, 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 넂 젇 援곗 吏곸뾽(궗臾댁쭅, 愿由ъ쭅)怨 렪쓽떆꽕(슫쟾빐꽌 씠룞)濡 씤빐 씪긽 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 쟻怨 뜑 삤옒 醫뚯떇 깮솢쓣 븯뒗 諛섎㈃, 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 젇 援곗 吏곸뾽(泥대젰 끂룞)怨 궗쉶 솚寃(嫄룰린, 옄쟾嫄 湲)뿉꽌뒗 뜑 留롮 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 냼紐⑦븳떎怨 븯떎28. 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 넂 끂뀈 援곗 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븷 닔 엳뒗 湲고쉶(뿬뒪옣, 뒪룷痢 겢읇)媛 뜑 留롮留, 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 끂뀈 援곗 씠윴 湲고쉶媛 蹂꾨줈 뾾떎28. 뵲씪꽌 떊泥댄솢룞 遺議깆쑝濡 씤븳 留뚯꽦 吏덈퀝쓽 蹂닿굔鍮꾩슜쓣 媛먯냼븯湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 媛쒖씤肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 援媛 吏뿭궗쉶媛 嫄닿컯 遺덊룊벑씠 諛쒖깮븯吏 븡룄濡 뜑 留롮 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 湲고쉶瑜 젣怨듯븯뒗 議곗튂瑜 빐빞 븳떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 紐 媛吏 븳怨꾩젏쓣 媛吏怨 엳떎. 泥レ㎏, 씠 뿰援ш 씠슜븳 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 옄猷뚮뒗 슒떒硫 뿰援(cross-sectional study)씠湲 븣臾몄뿉 떊泥댄솢룞怨 愿젴 슂씤 媛꾩쓽 씤怨쇨怨꾨 蹂닿린媛 뼱졄떎. 몮吏, 떊泥댄솢룞웾 꽕臾몄濡 痢≪젙븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 怨쇰룊媛맆 닔 엳떎29. 怨쇰룊媛뒗 꽕臾몄뿉꽌 궗쉶쟻쑝濡 옒 蹂댁씠룄濡 諛섏쓳븯뒗 寃쏀뼢쓽 삤瑜, 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 媛뺣룄瑜 씠빐븯뒗 怨쇱젙쓽 삤瑜, 삱諛붾Ⅸ 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 湲곗뼲쓽 삤瑜섏 媛숈 臾몄젣濡 씤빐 諛쒖깮븷 닔 엳떎30. 뀑吏, 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以蹂 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓽 李⑥씠瑜 媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以留뚯쑝濡 꽕紐낇븯吏 紐삵뻽떎. 씠뿉 빐 吏곸뾽뿉 뵲瑜 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓽 李⑥씠뿉 븳 썑냽 뿰援ш 븘슂븷 寃껋씠떎.

씠윭븳 븳怨꾩젏뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 븳援쓣 몴븯뒗 뜲씠꽣씤 븳援 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 옄猷뚮 씠슜빐꽌 遺꾩꽍뻽湲곗뿉 쓽誘멸 엳떎. 삉븳 2014–2018뀈뿉 GPAQ 꽕臾몄濡 궗엺뱾쓽 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓣 醫낅쪟蹂꾨줈 議곗궗븳 뿰援 옄猷뚭 뾾뿀湲 븣臾몄뿉, GPAQ 꽕臾몄瑜 넻빐 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 븳援씤뱾쓽 떊泥댄솢룞웾뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 룊媛뻽떎뒗 쓽誘멸 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援щ줈 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씤 媛援 냼뱷 닔以怨 援먯쑁 닔以뿉 뵲씪 떊泥 솢룞웾뿉 李⑥씠媛 엳떎뒗 寃곌낵瑜 솗씤븯떎. 씠뿉 뵲씪 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 궗쉶∙寃쎌젣쟻 닔以씠 궙 궗쉶 痍⑥빟怨꾩링쓣 쐞븳 쟻젅븳 떊泥댄솢룞 봽濡쒓렇옩 媛쒕컻 諛 젣怨듭씠 븘슂븿쓣 떆궗븯硫, 궗쉶 痍⑥빟怨꾩링쓣 쐞븳 嫄닿컯利앹쭊 젙梨낆쓣 留뚮뱾 븣 李멸퀬옄猷뚮줈 궗슜븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

YH and YSK designed the research; YH drafted the manuscript, performed statistical analyses and contributed to the interpretation of the results; JY, HS, JL and YSK critically reviewed the manuscript.

References
  1. Arem H, Moore SC, Patel A, et al. Leisure time physical activity and mortality: a detailed pooled analysis of the dose-response relationship. JAMA Intern Med 2015;175:959-67.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  2. Schuch FB, Vancampfort D, Richards J, Rosenbaum S, Ward PB, Stubbs B. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis adjusting for publication bias. J Psychiatr Res 2016;77:42-51.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  3. Mammen G, Faulkner G. Physical activity and the prevention of depression: a systematic review of prospective studies. Am J Prev Med 2013;45:649-57.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  4. Guthold R, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Bull FC. Worldwide trends in insufficient physical activity from 2001 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 358 population-based surveys with 1쨌9 million participants. Lancet Glob Health 2018;6:e1077-86.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. World Health Organization (WHO). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva:WHO; 2010 [cited 2021 Jul 3].
  6. World Health Organization (WHO). Global status report on noncommunicable diseases. Geneva:WHO; 2014 [cited 2021 Jul 3].
  7. Sallis JF, Bull F, Guthold R, et al. Progress in physical activity over the Olympic quadrennium. Lancet 2016;388:1325-36.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Kinge JM, Modalsli JH, 횠verland S, et al. Association of household income with life expectancy and cause-specific mortality in Norway, 2005-2015. JAMA 2019;321:1916-25.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  9. Reimers CD, Knapp G, Reimers AK. Does physical activity increase life expectancy? A review of the literature. J Aging Res 2012;2012:243958.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  10. Samitz G, Egger M, Zwahlen M. Domains of physical activity and all-cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Epidemiol 2011;40:1382-400.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Byberg L, Melhus H, Gedeborg R, et al. Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort. Br J Sports Med 2009;43:482.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  12. Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, et al. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet 2011;378:1244-53.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  13. Ford ES, Zhao G, Tsai J, Li C. Low-risk lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Mortality Study. Am J Public Health 2011;101:1922-9.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  14. Gerovasili V, Agaku IT, Vardavas CI, Filippidis FT. Levels of physical activity among adults 18-64 years old in 28 European countries. Prev Med 2015;81:87-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Demarest S, Van Oyen H, Roskam AJ, et al. Educational inequalities in leisure-time physical activity in 15 European countries. Eur J Public Health 2014;24:199-204.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Beenackers MA, Kamphuis CB, Giskes K, et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in occupational, leisure-time, and transport related physical activity among European adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2012;9:116.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, Surveillance and Population-Based Prevention, World Health Orga-nization (WHO). Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) analysis guide [Internet]. Geneva:WHO; 2010 [cited 2021 Jul 3].
  18. World Health Organization (WHO). Global Health Observatory data. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity [Internet]. Geneva:WHO; 2018 [cited 2021 Jul 3].
  19. IPAQ Group. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) [Internet]. IPAQ Group; 2002 [cited 2021 Jul 3].
  20. Holtermann A, Schnohr P, Nordestgaard BG, Marott JL. The physical activity paradox in cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: the contemporary Copenhagen General Population Study with 104 046 adults. Eur Heart J 2021;42:1499-511.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  21. Holtermann A, Krause N, van der Beek AJ, Straker L. The physical activity paradox: six reasons why occupational physical activity (OPA) does not confer the cardiovascular health benefits that leisure time physical activity does. Br J Sports Med 2018;52:149-50.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Lee J, Kim HR, Jang TW, Lee DW, Lee YM, Kang MY. Occupational physical activity, not leisure-time physical activity, is associated with increased high-sensitivity C reactive protein levels. Occup Environ Med 2021;78:86-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  23. Coenen P, Huysmans MA, Holtermann A, et al. Do highly physically active workers die early? A systematic review with meta-analysis of data from 193 696 participants. Br J Sports Med 2018;52:1320-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Cillekens B, Lang M, van Mechelen W, et al. How does occupational physical activity influence health? An umbrella review of 23 health outcomes across 158 observational studies. Br J Sports Med 2020;54:1474-81.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  25. Braveman P. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement. Annu Rev Public Health 2006;27:167-94.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  26. Laaksonen M, Pr?tt?l? R, Helasoja V, Uutela A, Lahelma E. Income and health behaviours. Evidence from monitoring surveys among Finnish adults. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:711-7.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  27. Wardle J, Steptoe A. Socioeconomic differences in attitudes and beliefs about healthy lifestyles. J Epidemiol Community Health 2003;57:440-3.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  28. Lee HH, P?rez AE, Operario D. Age moderates the effect of socioeconomic status on physical activity level among south Korean adults: cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative sample. BMC Public Health 2019;19:1332.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  29. Sung H, Lim J, Mun J, Kim Y. Objective versus self- reported physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Korean J Sports Med 2020;38:28-36.
    CrossRef
  30. Tucker JM, Welk GJ, Beyler NK, Kim Y. Associations between physical activity and metabolic syndrome: comparison between self-report and accelerometry. Am J Health Promot 2016;30:155-62.
    Pubmed CrossRef