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Acute Infrapatellar Fat Pad Injury after Non-contact, Hyperflexion Injury in a Professional Football Player: A Case Report
Korean J Sports Med 2022;40:54-58
Published online March 1, 2022;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2022.40.1.54
© 2022 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Chae-Chil Lee, Ki-Bong Park, Jung-Won Han

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan, Korea
Correspondence to: Ki-Bong Park
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 877 Bangeojinsunhwando-ro, Dong-gu, Ulsan 44033, Korea
Tel: +82-52-250-7129, Fax: +82-52-235-2823, E-mail: kbpark@uuh.ulsan.kr
Received September 14, 2021; Revised November 20, 2021; Accepted November 29, 2021.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
We describe the case of a 28-year-old male professional football player experiencing right knee pain after noncontact, hyperflexion injury during a regular professional football league match. Infrapatellar fat pad injury was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging. The athlete was fully recovered with conservative treatment and could return to sports at 6 weeks after injury.
Keywords : Knee, Adipose tissue, Athletic injuries, Football
꽌 濡

臾대쫷 愿젅쓽 쟾諛⑹뿉뒗 뒳媛쒓낏怨 뒳媛쒓굔쓽 쟾諛⑹뿉 쐞移섑븯뒗 뵾븯 吏諛⑷낵 愿젅 궡, 솢留 쇅 怨듦컙뿉 쐞移섑븯뒗 떖遺 吏諛⑹씠 議댁옱븳떎1. 뵾븯 吏諛⑹ 二쇰줈 臾대쫷쑝濡 뼥뼱吏뒗 굺긽씠굹 옣湲곌컙 臾대쫷 轅뉕린 옄꽭濡 씤빐 븬諛뺢낵 쟾떒 쓳젰(shear force)씠 異뺤쟻릺뼱 넀긽릺뒗 諛섎㈃, 떖遺 吏諛⑹ 臾대쫷씠 援닿끝, 떊쟾, 쉶쟾 슫룞쓣 븯硫댁꽌 諛쒖깮븯뒗 諛섎났쟻씤 쇅젰씠 뿼利앹꽦, 遺醫낆꽦, 異쒗삁꽦 諛섏쓳怨 뜑遺덉뼱 議곗쭅 蹂꽦쓣 쑀諛쒗븯硫, 씠윭븳 蹂솕뒗 吏諛 議곗쭅쓽 遺醫낃낵 媛냼꽦(plasticity) 냼떎쓣 珥덈옒븳떎怨 븣젮졇 엳떎2.

떖遺 吏諛⑹ 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜(infrapatellar fat pad), 쟾긽遺 뒳媛 吏諛⑹껜(anterior suprapatellar fat pad?quadriceps fat pad), 洹몃━怨 썑긽遺 뒳媛 吏諛⑹껜(posterior suprapatellar fat pad?prefemoral fat pad)濡 씠猷⑥뼱졇 엳떎(Fig. 1). 씠 以 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜뒗 긽遺뒗 뒳媛쒓낏쓽 븯洹뱀쑝濡, 븯遺뒗 쟾諛 寃쎄낏, 뿰怨⑦뙋媛 씤, 뿰怨⑦뙋 쟾洹 諛 뒳媛쒓낏븯 젏븸궘쑝濡, 쟾諛⑹ 뒳媛쒓굔쑝濡, 洹몃━怨 썑諛⑹ 눜 뼇怨쇱 눜 媛 젅쓷쑝濡 몮윭떥뿬 엳뼱 寃쎄퀎媛 엳뒗 씪젙븳 援ъ“씠硫, 씤 젏留됱쓣 넻빐 눜 媛 젅쓷, 뿰怨⑦뙋 쟾媛, 뒳媛쒓굔쓽 洹쇱쐞遺 留먮떒怨 뒳媛쒓낏쓽 븯洹뱀뿉 遺李⑸릺뼱 엳떎1. 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 寃쎌슦 媛먯엯(impingement)뿉 쓽븳 留뚯꽦 넀긽 옒 븣젮졇 엳쑝굹 쇅긽뿉 쓽븳 湲됱꽦 넀긽 븣젮吏 諛붽 쟻쑝硫, 듅엳 슫룞 꽑닔뿉꽌 遺긽 씠썑 諛쒖깮븳 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 湲됱꽦 넀긽 蹂닿퀬맂 諛붽 뱶臾쇰떎3.

Fig. 1. T1-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance image of the knee shows the intracapsular but extrasynovial fat pads–infrapatellar fat pad (IPF), quadriceps fat pad (QFP), prefemoral fat pad (PFP).

씠뿉 옄뱾 봽濡 異뺢뎄 꽑닔쓽 鍮꾩땐룎, 怨쇨뎬怨 臾대쫷 遺긽뿉 빐 옄湲곌났紐낆쁺긽(magnetic resonance imaging, MRI) 寃궗瑜 떆뻾븯뿬 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 넀긽쓣 吏꾨떒븯湲곗뿉 利앸 蹂닿퀬 븿猿 愿젴 臾명뿄쓣 怨좎같븯떎. 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 쓽븰뿰援ъ쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶 듅씤쓣 諛쏆븘 吏꾪뻾븯쑝硫(No. 2021-08-042), 蹂 利앸 蹂닿퀬 엫긽 궗吏 異쒗뙋뿉 븯뿬 솚옄濡쒕꽣 꽌硫 룞쓽瑜 諛쏆븯떎.

利 濡

봽濡 異뺢뎄 꽑닔씤 28꽭 궓옄 솚옄媛 궡썝 떦씪 젙洹 由ш렇 寃쎄린 以 諛쒖깮븳 슦痢 臾대쫷 넻利앹쓣 二쇱냼濡 쓳湲됱떎쓣 궡썝븯떎. 빐떦 꽑닔뒗 떊옣 184 cm, 泥댁쨷 76 kg, 泥댁쭏웾吏닔 22.4 kg/m2쑝硫 쇅援 援쟻쓽 以묒븰 誘몃뱶븘뜑떎.

寃쎄린 끃솕 쁺긽쓣 쉷뱷븯뿬 遺긽 떦떆쓽 닔긽 湲곗쟾쓣 遺꾩꽍븯떎. 썑諛 4遺꾧꼍 긽 吏꾩쁺뿉꽌 떒룆 뱶由щ툝쓣 븯硫댁꽌 긽諛⑷낵 寃쏀빀븯뜕 以 꽑닔 媛 吏곸젒쟻씤 異⑸룎 뾾씠 留덉留 蹂 꽣移 떆 슦痢 諛쒖씠 誘몃걚윭吏硫댁꽌 룞痢 臾대쫷씠 140° 씠긽 怨쇨뎬怨〓릺怨 留덉留됱뿉 룞痢 寃쎄낏씠 쇅쉶쟾븯뒗 닔긽 湲곗쟾쓣 솗씤븯떎(Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Video recordings show the mechanism of an athlete’s injury. While competing with the opponent while dribbling alone, the right foot slipped on the last touch of the ball without direct collision, and the ipsilateral knee was flexed more than 140° and externally rotated.

遺긽 떦떆 떆뻾븳 援щ떒 쓽猷뚯쭊쓽 쁽옣 룊媛뿉꽌 듅씠 냼寃ъ씠 愿李곕릺吏 븡븘 寃쎄린뿉 蹂듦븯吏留, 遺긽 諛쒖깮 4遺 썑뿉 뜑 씠긽쓽 寃쎄린 李몄뿬媛 遺덇뒫븯떎뒗 꽑닔 痢≪쓽 쓽궗 몴떆媛 엳뼱 利됯컖쟻씤 꽑닔 援먯껜媛 씠猷⑥뼱議뚮떎. 遺긽 꽑닔뒗 寃쎄린 醫낅즺 吏곹썑 遺긽 遺쐞뿉 븳 젙諛寃궗瑜 쐞빐 쓳湲됱떎濡 씠넚릺뿀떎.

솚옄뒗 以묒쬆룄 씠긽쓽 넻利앹씠 룞諛섎릺뼱 옄媛 蹂댄뻾씠 遺덇뒫븳 긽깭쑝硫, 쓳湲됱떎뿉꽌 떆뻾븳 떊泥 寃吏꾩뿉꽌 뵾遺 硫, 臾대쫷 愿젅쓽 醫낆갹, 궪異쒖븸쓽 利앷뒗 愿李곕릺吏 븡븯떎. 궡쇅痢 愿젅꽑쓽 븬넻 뾾뿀쑝굹, 臾대쫷 쟾쇅痢〓뿉 以묐벑룄쓽 븬넻씠 엳뿀떎. 뒫룞 愿젅 슫룞 踰붿쐞뒗 떊쟾 0°, 援닿끝 100°濡 솗씤릺뿀怨, 씤 遺덉븞젙꽦 뾾뿀떎.

떒닚 諛⑹궗꽑寃궗뒗 솚옄媛 嫄곕븯뿬 떆뻾븯吏 紐삵븯怨 MRI 寃궗瑜 떆뻾븯떎. MRI 寃궗뿉꽌 쇅痢 諛섏썡 뿰怨⑦뙋 쟾媛곷쓽 쟾硫댁뿉 쐞移섑븳 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜뿉 T1 媛뺤“ 쁺긽뿉꽌뒗 떊샇 媛뺣룄媛, T2 媛뺤“ 쁺긽뿉꽌뒗 怨좎떊샇 媛뺣룄媛 愿李곕릺뿀쑝굹, 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 援ъ“쟻 삎깭 蹂솕뒗 愿李곕릺吏 븡븯떎. 쟾諛⑹떗옄씤쓽 뿼醫 냼寃 씠쇅뿉 諛섏썡 뿰怨⑦뙋 넀긽, 痢〓 씤 넀긽, 怨 諛 벑 愿李곕릺吏 븡븯떎(Fig. 3). 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 湲됱꽦 넀긽쑝濡 吏꾨떒븯怨 源곸뒪 怨좎젙쓣 沅뚯쑀븯쑝굹 솚옄媛 룞쓽븯吏 븡븘 떆뻾븯吏 紐삵븯떎. 넻利 諛쒖깮 떆 鍮꾩뒪뀒濡쒖씠뱶꽦 냼뿼젣瑜 蹂듭슜븷 寃껉낵 紐⑸컻쓣 씠슜븯뿬 遺遺 泥댁쨷 遺븯 蹂댄뻾쓣 븯룄濡 援먯쑁븯怨 닕냼濡 蹂듦븯룄濡 븯떎.

Fig. 3. On magnetic resonance image (MRI) scan, low signal intensity in the T1-weighted sagittal image (A) and high signal intensity in the T2-weighted sagittal image (B) were observed at the infrapatellar fat pad located in the anterior part of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (arrow). MRIs show fluid collection anteriorly from the proximal tibia extending to the anterior horns of the meniscus.

솚옄뒗 닔긽 1二쇱감뿉 紐⑸컻 뾾씠 옄媛 蹂댄뻾쓣 븷 닔 엳뒗 긽깭쑝硫, 떊泥 寃吏꾩뿉꽌 쟾쇅痢〓 븬넻쓣 젣쇅븳 듅씠 냼寃ъ씠 뾾뼱 移섎즺 떆꽕뿉꽌 李몄쓣 닔 엳쓣 젙룄쓽 젏吏꾩쟻씤 뒫룞 愿젅 슫룞쓣 떆옉븯룄濡 沅뚯쑀븯떎. 닔긽 3二쇱감뿉 듅蹂꾪븳 利앹긽씠굹 슫룞 젣븳 뾾씠 썕젴 蹂듦媛 媛뒫븯쑝硫, 닔긽 6二쇱감뿉 젙洹 由ш렇 寃쎄린뿉 꽑諛 異쒖쟾븯硫댁꽌 寃쎄린뿉 蹂듦븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 닔긽 5媛쒖썡 썑씤 젙洹 떆利 醫낅즺源뚯 蹂몄씤씠 留뚯”븯뒗 닔以쓽 寃쎄린젰쓣 諛쒗쐶븷 닔 엳뿀쑝硫, 닔긽 6媛쒖썡源뚯 異붿쟻 愿李 긽 듅씠 냼寃ъ 솗씤릺吏 븡븯떎. 利앹긽씠 紐⑤몢 쉶蹂듬맂 긽깭뿉꽌 珥덉쓬뙆 寃궗 삉뒗 異붿떆 MRI 寃궗瑜 沅뚯쑀븯쑝굹, 솚옄媛 異붽 寃궗瑜 嫄곕븯뿬 Hoffa 利앺썑援, 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 援ъ텞씠굹 諛섑쓷 議곗쭅쑝濡쒖쓽 蹂솕 媛숈 썑쑀利 뿬遺瑜 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎.

怨 李

슫룞 꽑닔뱾쓽 湲됱꽦 遺긽뿉 븳 吏꾨떒 怨쇱젙뿉꽌 遺긽쓽 諛쒖깮 湲곗쟾쓣 솗씤븯뒗 寃껋 留ㅼ슦 以묒슂븯떎4. 떏꽣媛 紐⑤뱺 寃쎄린瑜 李멸븯硫댁꽌 遺긽 꽑닔瑜 떞떦븯뒗 寃껋씠 씠긽쟻씠寃좎쑝굹, 떎뼇븳 씠쑀뱾濡 씤빐 쁽떎쟻쑝濡 遺덇뒫븳 寃쎌슦媛 留롫떎. 遺긽 꽑닔媛 蹂묒썝쓣 諛⑸Ц븯쓣 븣, 遺긽 꽑닔쓽 湲곗뼲뿉 쓽議댄븯뿬 遺긽 떦떆쓽 긽솴쓣 쑀異뷀븯뒗 寃껋씠 씪諛섏쟻씠굹, 寃쎄린 샊 썕젴 옣硫댁씠 끃솕맂 쁺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븯뿬 遺긽 떦떆쓽 긽솴쓣 솗씤븯뒗 諛⑸쾿룄 엳떎4. 援궡 봽濡 異뺢뎄 由ш렇쓽 top division씤 K1 由ш렇쓽 寃쎄린 쁺긽 湲곕줉 씤꽣꽬 긽뿉꽌 늻援щ굹 젣븳 뾾씠 뿴엺븷 닔 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉, 寃쎄린 끃솕 쁺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븯뿬 遺긽 쐞移, 諛쒖깮 湲곗쟾, 遺긽 썑 寃쎄린 蹂듦 삉뒗 援먯껜 뿬遺 벑쓽 옄꽭븳 젙蹂대 뼸쓣 닔 엳떎. 蹂 利앸뒗 빐떦 꽑닔쓽 떏꽣媛 吏곸젒 寃쎄린뿉 李몄꽍븯뿬 쓽臾 吏썝쓣 븯뒗 以 꽑닔쓽 遺긽 옣硫댁쓣 떎떆媛꾩쑝濡 솗씤븯怨, 씠썑 寃쎄린 끃솕 쁺긽 遺꾩꽍쓣 넻빐 蹂대떎 옄꽭븳 遺긽 湲곗쟾쓣 븣븘궪 닔 엳뿀떎.

Stephen 벑5 MRI 寃궗瑜 넻빐 臾대쫷 援닿끝 떆 쟾諛 寃쎄낏怨 뒳媛쒓굔 궗씠쓽 怨듦컙(“the anterior interval”)씠 삊냼빐吏怨 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜媛 긽諛 諛 썑諛⑹쑝濡 쟾쐞릺硫댁꽌 눜 솢李⑥ 솢李 젅쓷(intercondylar notch)뿉 媛源뚯썙吏먯쓣 솗씤븳 諛 엳떎. 삉븳, 臾대쫷 援닿끝 30°뿉꽌 0°濡 떊쟾븷 븣 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜媛 쟾썑諛⑹쑝濡 吏곸씤떎뒗 뿰援щ룄 蹂닿퀬맂 諛 엳떎6. 씠 媛숈씠 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜뒗 臾대쫷쓽 吏곸엫뿉 뵲씪 겕寃 쟾쐞릺뒗 룞쟻 援ъ“臾쇱씠湲곗뿉, 쇅긽씠굹 諛섎났쟻씤 怨쇰븯뿉 痍⑥빟븯떎怨 븷 닔 엳떎5. 蹂 利앸룄 寃쎄린 끃솕 쁺긽 遺꾩꽍쓣 넻빐 臾대쫷씠 怨쇨뎬怨〓릺怨 寃쎄낏 쇅쉶쟾릺뒗 湲곗쟾쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝硫, 씠윭븳 吏곸엫 以 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜媛 겕寃 쟾쐞릺硫댁꽌 넀긽씠 諛쒖깮븯쑝由щ씪 異붿륫븯떎.

利앸濡 蹂닿퀬맂 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 넀긽쓽 듅吏뺤 Table 1怨 媛숇떎3,7. 紐⑤뱺 利앸媛 臾대쫷쓽 怨쇨뎬怨≪쓣 諛쒖깮 湲곗쟾쑝濡 뼵湲됲븯쑝硫, 蹂댄뻾 떆 넻利, 쟾諛⑸ 븬넻, 援닿끝 젣븳, 醫낃눼 뼇 蹂묒냼 벑쓽 吏뺥썑瑜 愿李고븷 닔 엳뿀떎怨 湲곗닠븯떎.

Table 1 . Summary of reports on infrapatellar fat pad injury

StudyAge (yr)/sexAthleteInjury mechanismSymptom and signTreatmentReturn to sports
Yi et al. (2021)324/maleNDContusion in the kneeling positionTenderness from patellar inferior pole to proximal tibia, flexion limitation (30°), valgus instability (first degree injury)ConservativeND (recovery to full ROM and full weight-bearing ambulation at posttraumatic 8 wk)
Mathieu et al. (2016)750/maleAmateur weight-lifterHyperflexion from a fallAnterolateral pain, pain on walking and going stairs, solid mass-like lesionOpen excisionBiking and swimming 3 mo after surgery
Current study28/maleProfessional football playerHyperflexion with external rotation of the lower limbAnterolateral tenderness, limping gaitConservativeProfessional football match at post-traumatic 6 wk

ND: no description, ROM: range of motion.



씪諛 諛⑹궗꽑寃궗뒗 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 二쇰쓽 怨 씠긽씠굹 꽍쉶솕 쑀臾대 蹂댁뿬以떎. 珥덉쓬뙆寃궗뒗 뵾븯 吏諛⑹쓽 Morel-Lavallée 蹂묐씠굹 媛젏븸궘뿼(pseudo-bursitis)쓣 吏꾨떒븷 닔 엳뒗 슦닔븳 寃궗踰뺤쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳쑝굹, 떖遺 吏諛 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 蹂묐 珥덉쓬뙆寃궗瑜 넻빐 쓽떖븷 젙룄씠湲곗뿉 솗떎븳 吏꾨떒쓣 븷 닔 엳뒗 MRI媛 湲곗 寃궗踰뺤쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎8. MRI 寃궗뒗 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 꽟쑀솕, 뿼利, 遺醫, 醫낃눼 뼇 蹂묒냼 벑 떎뼇븳 蹂묐━瑜 蹂댁뿬以떎2. 吏湲덇퉴吏 蹂닿퀬맂 利앸뱾쓽 MRI 寃궗뿉꽌뒗 떒닚엳 떊샇媛뺣룄媛 利앷맂 냼寃щ꽣 븸泥 瑜섍 룞諛섎맂 寃쎄낏 怨좏룊遺濡쒕꽣쓽 셿쟾븳 遺꾨━ 냼寃, 醫낃눼 뼇 냼寃 벑씠 愿李곕릺뿀떎3,7.

뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 넀긽뿉 븳 移섎즺踰뺤 빟臾쇱튂猷, 臾쇰━移섎즺 벑쓽 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺媛 엳쑝硫, 湲곕뒫 뒳愿젅 蹂댁“湲곕 떊쟾 긽깭濡 쑀吏븯硫댁꽌 紐⑸컻쓣 씠슜븳 移섎즺룄 沅뚯쑀븷 닔 엳떎3,9. 왂 6–8二쇱쓽 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺 썑뿉 遺긽 씠쟾쓽 긽깭瑜 쉶蹂듯븯怨 슫룞뿉 蹂듦븷 닔 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀쑝硫3, 蹂 利앸룄 닔긽 6二쇱감뿉 寃쎄린 蹂듦媛 媛뒫븯떎. 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺뿉룄 샇쟾씠 뾾쑝硫 닔닠쟻 移섎즺瑜 떆뻾븷 닔 엳뒗뜲, 쟾넻쟻쑝濡쒕뒗 愿삁쟻 젅젣닠濡 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜瑜 젣嫄고븯쑝굹 理쒓렐뿉뒗 愿젅寃 븯 젣嫄곗닠씠 븞쟾븯怨 뜙 移⑥뒿쟻씤 닔닠 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 냼媛쒕릺怨 엳떎7,9.

蹂 利앸뒗 돺寃 젒븷 닔 엳뒗 利앸媛 븘땲硫, 寃쎄린 룄以 洹뱀떖븳 넻利앹씠 諛쒖깮븯쓬뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 臾대쫷 愿젅쓽 떎瑜 愿젅 궡 援ъ“臾쇱씠 븘땶 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 넀긽씠씪뒗 留ㅼ슦 뱶臾 蹂묐쓣 吏꾨떒븯怨, 씠썑 쟻젅엳 移섎즺릺뼱 슫룞 蹂듦媛 媛뒫븯떎뒗 젏뿉꽌 씗냼꽦씠 엳떎怨 깮媛곷맂떎. 떒씪 삁씠誘濡 씪諛섑솕븯湲 뼱졄떎뒗 젣븳씠 엳吏留, 臾대쫷씠 怨쇨뎬怨〓릺뒗 넀긽 씠썑 洹뱀떖븳 넻利앹씠 諛쒖깮븯怨, 쟾쇅痢〓 븬넻怨 뜑遺덉뼱 援닿끝 젣븳씠 룞諛섎릺뒗 寃쎌슦뿉뒗 뒳媛쒗븯 吏諛⑹껜 넀긽쓣 쓽떖빐빞 븳떎뒗 엫긽 젙蹂대 젣怨듯븳떎뒗 쓽쓽媛 엳떎.

옄뱾 슫룞 꽑닔쓽 寃쎄린 以 臾대쫷 怨쇨뎬怨 넀긽 씠썑 諛쒖깮븳 뒳媛쒓낏븯 吏諛⑹껜쓽 넀긽쓣 MRI 寃궗濡 吏꾨떒븯怨 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺 썑 遺긽 6二쇱감뿉 寃쎄린뿉 蹂듦븷 닔 엳뿀뜕 1삁瑜 寃쏀뿕븯湲곗뿉 蹂닿퀬븯뒗 諛붿씠떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Formal analysis, Project administration: CCL. Conceptualization, Methodology, Project administration: KBP. Data curation, Visualization: JWH. Writing?original draft: CCL, JWH. Writing?review & editing: KBP.

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