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Comparison of Isokinetic Knee Strength Profiles According to History of Knee Surgery in Korean Women’s Professional Basketball Players
Korean J Sports Med 2022;40:128-137
Published online June 1, 2022;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2022.40.2.128
© 2022 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

Munku Song1,2, Hyunsik Kang1, Inhwan Lee1

1College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 2Samsung Training Center, Suwon, Korea
Correspondence to: Hyunsik Kang
College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Korea
Tel: +82-31-299-6911, Fax: +82-31-299-6941, E-mail: hkang@skku.edu
Received September 3, 2021; Revised January 12, 2022; Accepted April 1, 2022.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: This study compared isokinetic knee strength profiles by knee surgery history in basketball players.
Methods: A total of 17 professional female basketball players (age, 23.7±3.8 years) participated in this study. All the participants performed maximal isokinetic knee strength test concentrically at a velocity of 60°•sec−1 and 180°•sec−1. Strength variables included peak torque (PT), body mass normalized PT (NPT), bilateral strength difference (BD), hamstrings to quadriceps strength (H/Q) ratio. Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare mean differences in the measured parameters by knee surgery history and limb-based sugroups, respectively.
Results: Nine subjects had a history of knee surgery. At all velocities, there were no significant group differences in PTs, NPTs, BDs, and H/Q ratios of the knee extensor and flexor muscles by knee surgery history. Overall, NPTs of knee extensor and flexor muscles were 2.91−3.01 N•m•kg−1 and 1.55−1.59 N•m•kg−1, respectively, and H/Q ratios ranged from 52% to 55%. At 180°•sec−1. NPTs of knee extensor and flexor muscles were 1.90−1.92 N•m•kg−1 and 1.08−1.10 N•m•kg−1, respectively, and H/Q ratios ranged from 57% to 58%.
Conclusion: The current findings suggested that isokinetic knee strength profiles measured at 60°•sec−1 and 180°•sec−1 velocities were similar regardless of a history of knee surgery in the professional female basketball players.
Keywords : Isokinetic knee strength, Basketball players, Knee injuries, Quadriceps, Peak torque
꽌 濡

쁽 냽援щ뒗 寃쎄린 以 떊泥 젒珥됱씠 뿀슜릺뒗 젒珥 뒪룷痢좊줈 遺꾨쪟릺硫, 湲됱꽦 삉뒗 怨쇱궗슜쑝濡 씤븳 遺긽 諛쒖깮瑜좎씠 넂 뒪룷痢좊줈 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎1. 쟾誘몃븰泥댁쑁삊쉶(National Collegiate Athletic Association, NCAA)쓽 遺긽媛먯떆봽濡쒓렇옩(Injury Surveillance Program, ISP) 옄猷뚮 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 냽援ъ쓽 뿰媛 삁痢 遺긽 諛쒖깮瑜좎 1,000 꽑닔 끂異(athlete exposures, AEs; 꽑닔媛 썕젴 諛 寃쎄린뿉 李몄뿬빐 遺긽뿉 끂異쒕맆 닔 엳뒗 媛뒫꽦)떦 8.5嫄댁쑝濡 쟾泥 뒪룷痢좎쓽 룊洹좎씤 6.0嫄댁쓣 긽쉶븯뿬 異뺢뎄(8.0嫄/1,000 AEs) 鍮꾩듂븳 닔以씤 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎2. 뜑슧씠 理쒓퀬 닔以쓽 냽援 꽑닔뱾씠 李몄뿬븯뒗 쟾誘 냽援ы삊쉶(National Basketball Association, NBA) 쟾誘 뿬옄 냽援ы삊쉶(Women’s National Basketball Association, WNBA) 由ш렇쓽 寃쎄린 以 遺긽 諛쒖깮瑜좎 媛곴컖 1,000 AEs떦 19.3嫄, 24.9嫄댁쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뼱 寃쎌웳씠 떖븳 긽솴씪닔濡 遺긽 諛쒖깮 솗瑜좎씠 넂븘吏뒗 寃껋쓣 吏먯옉븷 닔 엳떎.

씎誘몃∼寃뚮룄 뿕由ы듃 냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 遺긽뿭븰쓣 議곗궗븳 遺遺꾩쓽 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 븯吏 넀긽 쟾泥 냽援 遺긽쓽 留롮 鍮꾩쨷(빟 52%–65%)쓣 李⑥븯硫, 듅엳 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 옣湲곌컙쓽 寃곗옣쓣 珥덈옒븯嫄곕굹 옱솢쓣 븘슂濡 븯뒗 떖媛곹븳 遺긽 遺쐞씤 寃껋쑝濡 씪愿릺寃 蹂닿퀬븯怨 엳떎1-6. 援ъ껜쟻쑝濡 16뀈媛꾩쓽 NCAA ISP 옄猷뚮 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 臾대쫷愿젅 옣븷뒗 10씪 씠긽쓽 寃쎄린 李몄뿬瑜 젣븳븯뒗 遺긽 以 媛옣 겙 鍮꾩쨷(臾대쫷 21.2%, 諛쒕ぉ 16.2%, 諛 6.4% 닚)쓣 李⑥뻽쑝硫1, 17뀈媛 NBA뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븳 遺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 臾대쫷 뿼醫(knee sprain) 諛 臾대쫷꽇떎由 뿼利(patellofemoral inflammation)怨 媛숈 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽씠 寃곗옣쓣 珥덈옒븯뒗 媛옣 二쇱슂븳 썝씤쑝濡 吏紐⑸맂 諛 엳떎4. 씠 쑀궗븯寃, 22뀈媛 쑀읇由ш렇뿉 李몄뿬븳 諛붾Ⅴ濡쒕굹 봽濡쒕냽援ы쓽 遺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 臾대쫷 遺긽 떆媛 넀떎쓣 珥덈옒븯뒗 媛옣 二쇱슂븳 썝씤쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎6.

븳렪 냽援 꽑닔뿉寃 諛쒖깮븯뒗 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 꽦蹂꾩뿉 뵲씪 李⑥씠媛 엳쑝硫, 뿬옄 꽑닔媛 궓옄 꽑닔뿉 鍮꾪빐 넂 遺긽瑜좎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎. 뿬꽢 떆利 룞븞 NBA WNBA 由ш렇뿉꽌 諛쒖깮븳 遺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 뿬옄 꽑닔쓽 寃쎄린 愿젴 臾대쫷 遺긽 諛쒖깮瑜좎 1,000 AEs떦 4.4嫄댁쑝濡 궓옄 꽑닔쓽 2.5嫄대낫떎 넂寃 굹궗怨3, 씪蹂몄쓽 耳씠삤븰援 뒪룷痢 쓽븰꽱꽣뿉 異뺤쟻맂 20뀈媛꾩쓽 옄猷뚮 遺꾩꽍븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 뿬옄 꽑닔쓽 臾대쫷 遺긽씠 쟾泥 넀긽쓽 빟 50.4%瑜 李⑥븯硫 궓옄 꽑닔蹂대떎 쑀쓽븯寃 넂(41.7%) 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎7. 븳援 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 臾대쫷愿젅 넀긽쓣 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뿉寃 諛쒖깮븯뒗 媛옣 鍮덈룄 넂 遺긽쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎8.

臾명뿄 怨좎같 寃곌낵, 怨쇨굅쓽 臾대쫷 遺긽 씠젰 諛 닔닠 寃쏀뿕 옣湲곌컙뿉 嫄몄퀜 꽑닔쓽 洹 湲곕뒫(洹쇰젰 諛 媛룞踰붿쐞 벑)쓣 븯떆궗 닔 엳쑝硫 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 룊媛 떆 諛섏쁺릺뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳떎9-12. 삁瑜 뱾뼱 쑀읇 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔 15紐낆쓣 긽쑝濡 怨쇨굅 떖媛곹븳 臾대쫷 遺긽 寃쏀뿕 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲씪 몢 洹몃9쑝濡 굹늿 떎쓬 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 寃곌낵, 臾대쫷 遺긽 寃쏀뿕씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒 媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1쓽 룄洹쇰젰씠 醫뚯떇깮솢쓣 븯뒗 궗엺뱾쓽 룊洹좎뿉룄 誘몄튂吏 紐삵븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗怨, 遺긽 寃쏀뿕씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒뿉 鍮꾪빐 떖媛곹븳 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎9. 븯吏留 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 넂 臾대쫷 遺긽 諛쒖깮瑜좎뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰쓣 룊媛븳 遺遺꾩쓽 꽑뻾뿰援щ뱾 뿬쟾엳 怨쇨굅 臾대쫷 遺긽 諛 닔닠 씠젰쓣 以묒슂븳 룊媛蹂닔濡 怨좊젮븯吏 븡怨 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 뙆븙릺怨 엳떎.

諛섎㈃ 吏湲덇퉴吏 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔쓽 臾대쫷愿젅 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 꽑뻾뿰援щ뱾쓣 醫낇빀빐 蹂대㈃, 꽑닔쓽 룷吏뀡13,14, 寃쎄린 닔以14, 꽦蹂15,16, 뿰졊16, 醫낅ぉ17 벑쓣 蹂닔濡 븳 뿰援ш 二쇰 씠猷④퀬 엳뿀떎. 삉븳, 씠윭븳 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 뵾뿕옄쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎뿉 븳 뼵湲 뾾씠 떒닚엳 遺긽쓣 寃쏀뿕븯吏 븡 솢룞쟻씤 꽑닔留뚯쓣 룷븿뻽嫄곕굹15-17, 6媛쒖썡 씠궡뿉 遺긽쓣 寃쏀뿕븯吏 븡 긽옄留뚯쓣 룷븿븯怨 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 뙆븙릺뿀떎14. 뵲씪꽌 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 젣떆븯怨 엳뒗 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 臾대쫷愿젅 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 媛믪 떎젣 寃쎄린 諛 썕젴뿉 李몄뿬븷 닔 엳뒗 꽑닔뱾쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 룊洹좉컪怨쇰뒗 李⑥씠媛 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 씠윭븳 꽑뻾뿰援щ뱾쓽 젣븳젏뿉 李⑹븞븯뿬 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 怨쇨굅 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂뻽뜕 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 씠젰쓣 議곗궗븯怨, 臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 듅꽦쓣 鍮꾧탳∙遺꾩꽍븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 삉븳, 15% 씠긽쓽 떖媛곹븳 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽쓣 젣쇅븳 遺꾩꽍18쓣 넻빐 異붽쟻씤 젙蹂대 젣怨듯븯怨좎옄 븯떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

1. 뿰援 긽

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援뿬옄냽援ъ뿰留뱀뿉 벑濡앸맂 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 1媛 쓽 꽑닔 19紐낆쓣 理쒖큹 긽옄濡 꽑젙븯떎. 씠뱾 以 쇅援씤 꽑닔 1紐낆쓣 癒쇱 젣쇅븯怨, 痢≪젙 떦떆 뿁뜦젙媛뺢렐留됰씈 留덉같利앺썑援(iliotibial band syndrome)씠 엳뼱 寃궗瑜 吏꾪뻾븯吏 紐삵븳 1紐낆쓣 異붽濡 젣쇅븳 썑, 理쒖쥌 17紐(뿰졊 23.7±3.8꽭, 봽濡 寃쎈젰 4.6±3.8뀈)쓣 遺꾩꽍뿉 룷븿떆耳곕떎. 遺꾩꽍뿉 룷븿맂 긽옄뱾 怨쇨굅 臾대쫷愿젅 닔닠 씠젰怨 긽愿뾾씠 紐⑤뱺 썕젴 諛 寃쎄린뿉 젙긽쟻쑝濡 李몄뿬媛 媛뒫븳 긽깭쑝硫, 6媛쒖썡 씠궡뿉 臾대쫷愿젅 諛 꽇떎由 遺쐞쓽 洹쇨낏寃⑷퀎 遺긽쓣 寃쏀뿕븯吏 븡 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 寃궗뒗 떆利 쟾 泥대젰寃궗쓽 씪遺遺꾩쑝濡 닔뻾릺뿀쑝硫, 뿰援ъ뿉 李몄뿬븳 紐⑤뱺 긽옄뿉寃 뿰援ъ쓽 紐⑹쟻怨 젅李⑥뿉 빐 異⑸텇엳 꽕紐낇븳 썑 궗쟾 룞쓽瑜 諛쏄퀬 吏꾪뻾븯떎. 뿰援 긽옄뒗 꽱꽣 2紐, 룷썙뱶 6紐, 媛뱶 9紐낆쓣 룷븿뻽쑝硫, 닔닠씠 븘슂뻽뜕 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 씠젰뿉 뵲씪 닔닠 씠젰씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒(n=9)怨 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒(n=8)쑝濡 援щ텇븯떎(Table 1). 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 꽦洹좉븰援 뿰援ъ쑄由ъ떖쓽쐞썝쉶쓽 듅씤(No. SKKU 2021-08-001)쓣 諛쏆 썑 吏꾪뻾븯떎.

Table 1 . Physical characteristics of study participants

Characteristic Total PositionHistory of knee surgery
CenterForwardGuardSurgery group Non-surgery group
No. of subjects1726998
Age (yr)23.7±3.823.0±5.726.2±3.922.2±2.925.8±3.221.4±3.2
Height (cm)175.0±5.9183.5±4.9178.2±2.9171.0±4.2176.1±5.3173.8±6.6
Weight (kg)67.5±7.781.5±9.268.2±6.264.0±4.666.7±6.968.5±8.9
BMI (kg/m2)22.0±1.724.2±1.521.5±1.521.9±1.721.5±2.122.6±1.1
Career (yr)4.6±3.83.5±2.17.5±5.22.9±3.92.5±1.26.4±4.6

Values are presented as number or mean±standard deviation.

BMI: body mass index.



2. 痢≪젙 蹂씤 諛 痢≪젙 諛⑸쾿

1) 떊泥 援ъ꽦 諛 봽濡 꽑닔 寃쎈젰

뿰援 긽옄뱾쓽 떊옣怨 泥댁쨷 옄룞 痢≪젙 옣鍮(DS-102; Dong Sahn Jenix, Seoul, Korea)瑜 씠슜븯뿬 痢≪젙븯쑝硫, 泥댁쭏웾吏닔(body mass index)뒗 泥댁쨷(kg)/떊옣(m2)쓽 怨듭떇쓣 씠슜븯뿬 궛異쒗븯떎. 봽濡 꽑닔 寃쎈젰 援щ떒 솃럹씠吏쓽 怨듭떇 옄猷뚮 씠슜븯떎.

2) 臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰

꽑닔뱾쓽 臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 쓽 쓽臾 湲곕줉쓣 솗씤븯떎. 듅엳, 떎瑜 뿉꽌 씠쟻븳 꽑닔 4紐(Table 2쓽 1, 7, 8踰 꽑닔 Table 3쓽 3踰 꽑닔)쓽 寃쎌슦 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 寃궗뿉 븵꽌 뿰援ъ옄媛 吏곸젒 怨쇨굅젰 臾몄쭊쓣 떎떆븯뿬 늻씫쓣 理쒖냼솕븯떎. 긽옄 以 9紐낆쓽 꽑닔媛 理쒖냼 1媛쒖썡뿉꽌 9媛쒖썡 젙룄쓽 옱솢쓣 븘슂濡 븯뒗 젙삎쇅怨쇱쟻 닔닠쓣 諛쏆 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 援ъ껜쟻쑝濡 6紐낆쓽 꽑닔뒗 븵떗옄씤 옱嫄댁닠(anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction)쓣 諛쏆븯怨, 洹몄쨷 2紐낆 諛섎떖뿰怨 遺遺꾩젅젣닠(partial meniscectomy) 諛 諛섎떖뿰怨 遊됲빀닠(meniscus repair)怨 궡痢↔퀋씤 뿼醫(medial collateral ligament sprain)瑜 룞諛섑븯떎. 삉 떎瑜 2紐낆쓽 꽑닔뒗 諛섎떖뿰怨 넀긽쑝濡 씤빐 遺遺꾩젅젣닠쓣 떆뻾븯쑝硫, 洹몄쨷 1紐낆 蹂댁〈쟻 移섎즺瑜 蹂묓뻾븳 뿰怨 蹂묐(chondral lesion)쓣 븿猿 媛뽮퀬 엳뿀떎. 留덉留 1紐낆 癒쇱そ 꽇떎由щ펷쓽 諛뺣━堉덉뿰怨⑥뿼(osteochondritis dissecans)쑝濡 씤빐 誘몄꽭怨⑥젅닠(microfracture)쓣 떆뻾븯떎. 떎瑜 8紐낆쓽 꽑닔뒗 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂뻽뜕 遺긽 寃쏀뿕 뾾뿀쑝硫, 痢≪젙 떦떆 듅蹂꾪븳 臾대쫷 넻利앹쓣 샇냼븯吏 븡 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎.

Table 2 . Individual bilateral strength differences (BD) of isokinetic knee strength in the surgery group

Participant*Knee injuryTreatmentTime since surgery(yr)60°·sec−1 (%)180°·sec−1 (%)
BD of Q BD of H BD of Q BD of H
1Lt / ACL & MCL rupture, MLACLR & MR27206
2Lt / ACL & MCL rupture, MLACLR & MS24400
3Lt / ACL ruptureACLR58252
4Rt / ACL ruptureACLR61212612
5Rt / ACL ruptureACLR34167
6Lt / ACL ruptureACLR58252
7Lt / CD & MLMS327856
8Lt / MLMS41941411
9Lt / CDMFx17231421

Q: quadriceps, H: hamstrings, Lt: left, ACL: anterior cruciate ligament, MCL: medial collateral ligament, ML: meniscus lesion, ACLR: ACL reconstruction, MR: meniscal repair, MS: menisectomy, Rt: right, CD: chondral defect, MFx: microfracture, *Participants with a history of knee surgery. Before study.


Table 3 . Individual bilateral asymmetries of isokinetic knee strength in the non-surgery group

Participant* 60°·sec−1 (%)180°·sec−1 (%)
BD of Q BD of HBD of QBD of H
1229108
2719318
31864
46338
555134
67280
715762
87012

BD: bilateral strength difference, Q: quadriceps, H: hamstrings.

*Participants without a history of knee surgery.



3) 臾대쫷愿젅 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰

臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 寃궗뒗 HUMAC NORM (CSMi, Stoughton, MA, USA)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1 諛 180°닕sec–1뿉꽌 룄洹쇨낵 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 援ъ떖꽦 뵾겕넗겕(peak torque, PT)瑜 痢≪젙븯떎. 痢≪젙쓣 쐞븳 以鍮꾩슫룞 怨좎젙떇 옄쟾嫄 10遺꾧낵 꽇떎由щ꽕媛덈젅洹쇨낵 뮘꽇떎由ш렐쓽 뒪듃젅移쓣 룷븿븯떎. 痢≪젙 젅李⑥뿉 뵲씪 긽옄瑜 쓽옄뿉 븠엺 떎쓬 벑諛쏆씠瑜 85°濡 湲곗슱씠怨, 痢≪젙븯怨좎옄 븯뒗 떎由ъ쓽 꽇떎由щ펷 媛履쎌쐞愿젅쑖湲(lateral epicondyle)쓣 룞젰怨꾩쓽 異뺢낵 씪移섏떆궓 썑 긽泥 諛 꽇떎由щ 踰⑦듃 뒪듃옪쑝濡 怨좎젙븯떎. 吏젅 뙏(lever arm)쓽 諛쒕ぉ 뙣뱶뒗 諛쒕ぉ 以묒떖뿉꽌 빟 3cm 젙룄 쐞뿉 쐞移섑븯룄濡 븯쑝硫, 愿젅 슫룞 踰붿쐞뒗 0°–90°濡 꽕젙븯떎. 痢≪젙 쟾뿉, 痢≪젙 떆 媛숈 媛곸냽룄뿉꽌 쟻쓳쓣 쐞븳 삁鍮꾩슫룞쓣 3쉶뵫 떎떆븯怨, 떎젣 痢≪젙 60°닕sec–1뿉꽌 4쉶, 180°닕sec–1뿉꽌 20쉶瑜 諛섎났븯뿬 떎떆븯떎. 痢≪젙 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 臾댁옉쐞 닚꽌濡 吏꾪뻾븯怨, 痢≪젙 떆 뵾뿕옄쓽 PT瑜 씠걣뼱궡湲 쐞빐 援щ몢濡 寃⑸젮븯떎.

룄洹쇨낵 援쏀옓洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT (body mass normalized PT), 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎(bilateral strength difference), 뮘꽇떎由ш렐 꽇떎由щ꽕媛덈옒洹쇱쓽 洹쇰젰 鍮꾩쑉(hamstring to quadriceps ratio, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉)쓣 痢≪젙 蹂씤쑝濡 븯떎. PT뒗 媛곴컖쓽 媛곸냽룄뿉꽌 諛섎났븯뿬 痢≪젙맂 媛 以 媛옣 넂 닔移섎 궗슜븯怨, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떎瑜 뿰援ъ쓽 鍮꾧탳瑜 쐞빐 泥댁쨷떦 PT 媛 쐞二쇰줈 꽌닠븯떎. 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉 洹쇨굅븯뿬 룄洹 삉뒗 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 醫뚯슦 PT 李⑥씠媛 15% 씠긽씤 寃쎌슦濡 젙쓽븯떎18.

3. 옄猷뚮텇꽍

紐⑤뱺 넻怨꾩쿂由щ뒗 IBM SPSS ver. 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA)쓣 궗슜븯怨, 痢≪젙맂 紐⑤뱺 옄猷뚮뒗 룊洹±몴以렪李(mean±standard deviation)濡 젣떆븯떎. 遺긽 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 吏묐떒 媛 李⑥씠瑜 寃利앺븯湲 쐞빐 룆由쏀몴蹂 t寃젙(independent t-test)쓣 떎떆븯怨, 媛 궗吏 洹몃9뿉 뵲瑜 吏묐떒 媛 李⑥씠瑜 寃利앺븯湲 쐞빐 씪썝蹂웾遺꾩꽍(one-way analysis of variance)瑜 떎떆븯떎. 媛꽕寃젙쓣 쐞븳 넻怨꾩쟻 쑀쓽닔以 α=0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃 怨

1. 닔닠 씠젰씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉

臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 遺긽紐, 닔닠紐, 닔닠 썑 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 痢≪젙 떆源뚯쓽 湲곌컙, 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉 Table 2뿉 젣떆븯떎. 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 꽑닔뒗 3紐(33.3%)쑝濡 룄洹쇱뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 꽑닔뒗 2紐, 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌뒗 1紐낆씠뿀떎. 3紐 紐⑤몢 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁뜕 1紐낆 媛곸냽룄 180°닕sec–1 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌룄 遺덇퇏삎씠 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎.

2. 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉

臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉 Table 3뿉 젣떆븯떎. 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 꽑닔뒗 3紐(37.5%)쑝濡 룄洹쇱뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 꽑닔뒗 2紐, 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌뒗 1紐낆씠뿀떎. 3紐 紐⑤몢 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁쑝硫, 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁뜕 1紐낆 媛곸냽룄 180°닕sec–1 援쏀옒洹쇱뿉꽌룄 遺덇퇏삎씠 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎.

3. 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 뵾겕넗겕

닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 PT瑜 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 4뿉 젣떆븯떎. 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1뿉꽌 痢≪젙븳 쟾泥 꽑닔쓽 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢≪씠 媛곴컖 2.85±0.44 N닕m닕kg–1怨 2.92±0.42 N닕m닕kg–1怨, 援쏀옓洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦뒗 媛곴컖 1.55±0.24 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.52±0.23 N닕m닕kg–1떎. 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉 媛곴컖 10.0%±7.0% 7.1%±6.4%쑝硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 媛곴컖 54.0%±7.3% 52.1%±6.5%떎. 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 吏묐떒 媛 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT, 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉, 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢≪쓽 H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

Table 4 . Isokinetic knee strength profiles according to a history of knee surgery in the total group

VariableTotal (n=17)Surgery group (n=9)Non-surgery group (n=8)p-value
60°∙sec−1
Q-D (N·m)190.1±27.1188.9±21.2191.4±34.00.862
Q-ND (N·m)195.1±28.4194.3±33.9196.0±22.80.906
Q-D (N·m·kg−1)2.85±0.442.86±0.372.83±0.530.905
Q-ND (N·m·kg−1)2.92±0.422.92±0.492.91±0.360.953
BD of Q (%)10.0±7.011.1±7.68.8±6.60.503
H-D (N·m)103.7±18.5103.1±14.1104.3±23.50.907
H-ND (N·m)101.7±18.597.0±18.4106.8±18.40.288
H-D (N·m·kg−1)1.55±0.241.56±0.231.54±0.270.840
H-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.51±0.231.46±0.281.57±0.170.340
BD of H (%)7.1±6.47.6±7.16.6±5.90.772
H/Q of D (%)54.8±7.354.8±6.154.8±9.00.994
H/Q of ND (%)52.1±6.550.0±5.554.5±7.00.166
180°∙sec−1
Q-D (N·m)126.4±17.7121.8±16.9131.6±18.10.267
Q-ND (N·m)127.0±14.9126.2±18.4127.9±10.90.823
Q-D (N·m·kg−1)1.89±0.251.83±0.221.95±0.270.329
Q-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.90±0.231.90±0.231.90±0.240.960
BD of Q (%)6.9±5.17.4±6.26.3±4.00.639
H-D (N·m)71.9±12.670.3±12.973.8±12.80.593
H-ND (N·m)71.2±12.667.8±12.675.1±12.20.240
H-D (N·m·kg−1)1.07±0.161.06±0.191.08±0.110.782
H-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.06±0.151.02±0.181.11±0.100.224
BD of H (%)6.6±6.07.4±6.55.8±5.70.575
H/Q of D (%)57.0±5.657.8±5.356.1±6.20.566
H/Q of ND (%)56.1±7.653.9±6.358.6±8.50.218

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

Q: quadriceps, D: dominant limb, ND: non-dominant limb, BD: bilateral strength difference, H: hamstrings, H/Q: hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio.



媛곸냽룄 180°닕sec–1뿉꽌 痢≪젙븳 쟾泥 꽑닔쓽 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢≪씠 媛곴컖 1.89±0.25 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.90± 0.23 N닕m닕kg–1怨, 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦뒗 媛곴컖 1.07±0.16 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.06±0.15 N닕m닕kg–1떎. 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉 媛곴컖 6.9%±5.1% 6.6%±6.0%쑝硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 媛곴컖 57.0%±5.6% 56.1%±7.6%떎. 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 吏묐떒 媛 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT, 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉, 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢≪쓽 H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

4. 媛 궗吏 洹몃9뿉 뵲瑜 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 뵾겕넗겕 鍮꾧탳

닔닠 씠젰씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒 鍮꾩닔닠 떎由(non-operated limb, NL) 삉뒗 닔닠 떎由(operated limb, OL) 洹몃9쑝濡, 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒 슦꽭痢(dominant limb, DL)怨 鍮꾩슦꽭痢 떎由(non-dominant limb, NDL) 洹몃9쑝濡 꽭遺꾪솕븳 떎쓬 PT瑜 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 5뿉 젣떆븯떎. 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1 諛 180°닕sec–1뿉꽌 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 洹몃9 媛 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

Table 5 . Comparison of isokinetic knee strength profiles according to each limb group in the total group

VariableWith history of knee surgeryWithout history of knee surgeryp-value
SG-NL (n=9)SG-OL (n=9)NSG-DL (n=8)NSG-NDL (n=8)
60°·sec−1
Q (N·m)190.6±19.7192.7±35.0191.4±34.0196.0±22.80.982
H (N·m)101.9±14.998.2±18.1104.2±23.5106.8±18.40.808
Q (N·m·kg−1)2.89±0.402.89±0.462.83±0.532.91±0.360.987
H (N·m·kg−1)1.54±0.231.48±0.291.54±0.271.57±0.170.907
180°·sec−1
Q (N·m)125.0±16.7123.0±18.8131.6±18.1127.8±10.80.731
H (N·m)70.7±13.467.3±11.973.7±12.775.1±12.10.593
Q (N·m·kg−1)1.88±0.241.84±0.211.95±0.271.90±0.240.827
H (N·m·kg−1)1.07±0.191.01±0.171.08±0.111.11±0.100.624

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

SG: surgery group, NL: non-operated limb, OL: operated limb, NSG: non-surgery group, DL: dominant limb, NDL: non-dominant limb, Q: quadriceps, H: hamstrings.



5. 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽옄瑜 젣쇅븳 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 뵾겕넗겕

15% 씠긽쓽 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽 6紐낆쓣 젣쇅븳 썑 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 PT瑜 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 6뿉 젣떆븯떎. 媛곸냽룄 60°닕sec–1뿉꽌 痢≪젙븳 쟾泥 꽑닔쓽 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 媛곴컖 2.91±0.49 N닕m닕kg–1怨 3.01±0.44 N닕m닕kg–1怨, 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦 媛곴컖 1.59±0.25 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.55±0.24 N닕m닕kg–1쑝硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 媛곴컖 55.2%±6.7% 51.8%±7.0%떎. 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

Table 6 . Isokinetic knee strength profiles according to a history of knee injury in the subgroup*

VariableTotal (n=11)Injured group (n=6)Not injured group (n=5)p-value
60°·sec−1
Q-D (N·m)197.0±29.5193.0±25.6201.8±36.10.661
Q-ND (N·m)204.4±24.3204.2±26.1204.6±24.90.978
Q-D (N·m·kg−1)2.91±0.492.88±0.442.93±0.590.884
Q-ND (N·m·kg−1)3.01±0.443.04±0.482.98±0.450.836
H-D (N·m)108.1±18.8107.7±9.65108.6±27.70.946
H-ND (N·m)106.1±18.6104.0±14.8108.6±24.00.721
H-D (N·m·kg−1)1.59±0.251.62±0.231.56±0.290.750
H-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.55±0.241.55±0.281.55±0.2210.00
H/Q of D (%)55.2±6.756.2±2.654.0±10.00.619
H/Q of ND (%)51.8±7.051.0±6.552.8±8.20.700
180°·sec−1
Q-D (N·m)130.0±17.8126.3±17.6134.4±19.00.489
Q-ND (N·m)130.6±13.2133.7±14.0127.0±12.60.429
Q-D (N·m·kg−1)1.91±0.241.87±0.231.95±0.260.610
Q-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.92±0.241.99±0.211.85±0.280.398
H-D (N·m)75.3±11.773.2±10.477.8±13.90.558
H-ND (N·m)73.5±12.971.3±11.476.2±15.60.579
H-D (N·m·kg−1)1.10±0.131.09±0.171.11±0.080.732
H-ND (N·m·kg−1)1.08±0.151.06±0.191.10±0.110.684
H/Q of D (%)58.0±5.358.2±3.457.8±7.50.924
H/Q of ND (%)56.5±8.953.7±7.059.8±10.50.302

Values are presented as mean±standard deviation.

Q: quadriceps, D: dominant limb, ND: non-dominant limb, H: hamstrings, H/Q: hamstring to quadriceps strength ratio.

*Individuals who had more than 15% difference in right and left muscle strength were excluded in the subgroup.



媛곸냽룄 180°닕sec–1뿉꽌 痢≪젙븳 쟾泥 꽑닔쓽 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 媛곴컖 1.91±0.24 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.92±0.24 N닕m닕kg–1怨, 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 媛곴컖 1.10± 0.13 N닕m닕kg–1怨 1.08±0.15 N닕m닕kg–1쑝硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 媛곴컖 58.0%±5.3%, 56.5%±8.9%떎. 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 슦꽭닕鍮꾩슦꽭痢 룄洹 諛 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁씠吏 븡븯떎.

怨 李

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 怨쇨굅 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂뻽뜕 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 씠젰쓣 議곗궗븯怨, 臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰뿉 뵲瑜 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 듅꽦쓣 鍮꾧탳∙遺꾩꽍븯怨좎옄 븯떎. 珥 17紐낆쓽 뿰援 긽옄 以 9紐(52.9%)쓽 꽑닔媛 怨쇨굅 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂븳 떖媛곹븳 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 씠젰쓣 媛吏怨 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝硫, 씠 以 븵떗옄씤쓽 뙆뿴(anterior cruciate ligament rupture)쓣 寃쏀뿕븳 꽑닔뒗 6紐(66.7%)쑝濡 媛옣 넂 鍮꾩쨷쓣 李⑥뻽怨, 諛섎떖뿰怨 넀긽(meniscal lesions) 2紐(22.2%), 諛뺣━堉덉뿰怨⑥뿼 1紐(11.1%) 닚쑝濡 굹궗떎. 蹂 뿰援ъ쿂읆 븳 媛쒖쓽 꽑닔瑜 긽쑝濡 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂뻽뜕 臾대쫷 遺긽 씠젰쓣 議곗궗븳 꽑뻾뿰援ш 뾾뼱 吏곸젒쟻씤 鍮꾧탳뒗 뼱젮썱吏留, 蹂 뿰援 긽뿉꽌 떖媛곹븳 臾대쫷 遺긽쓣 寃쏀뿕븳 鍮꾩쑉씠 52.9%濡 넂寃 굹궃 寃껋 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뿉寃 臾대쫷愿젅 媛옣 쓷븳 넀긽 遺쐞씠硫7,8, 옣湲곌컙쓽 寃곗옣쓣 珥덈옒븯뒗 遺긽 遺쐞濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳뒗 寃껉낵 媛숈 留λ씫뿉꽌 빐꽍븷 닔 엳떎4-6.

援ъ껜쟻쑝濡 씪蹂 뿕由ы듃 냽援 꽑닔 1,414紐낆쓽 遺긽湲곕줉쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 Ito 벑7뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 臾대쫷愿젅 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뿉寃 媛옣 쓷븳 넀긽 遺쐞濡 50.4%瑜 李⑥븯硫, 臾대쫷쓽 二쇱슂 넀긽 븵떗옄씤 뙆뿴(48.7%), 諛섎떖뿰怨 넀긽(9.6%), 臾대쫷꽇떎由щ펷 옒以꾩뿼(patellar and femoral tendinitis, 7.2%) 닚쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 삉븳, 2015뀈遺꽣 2019뀈源뚯 WNBA 꽑닔뱾씠 젙洹 떆利 룞븞 寃れ 遺긽쓣 遺꾩꽍븳 Baker 벑5쓽 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 옣湲곌컙쓽 寃곗옣쓣 珥덈옒븯뒗 媛옣 二쇱슂븳 넀긽 븵떗옄씤 뙆뿴(28%), 쇅痢 諛쒕ぉ 뿼醫(lateral ankle sprain, 9%), 諛섎떖뿰怨 뙆뿴(meniscal tear, 8.4%), 臾대쫷 堉덉뿰怨 넀긽(osteochondral injury, 6%) 닚쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯뿬, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 議곗궗맂 臾대쫷 遺긽 씠젰 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 젣떆븯怨 엳뒗 뿬옄 냽援 醫낅ぉ 듅씠쟻씤 遺긽 뙣꽩怨 씪移섑븯뒗 寃곌낵瑜 蹂댁떎.

씠젃寃 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뿉寃뚯꽌 臾대쫷 遺긽씠 鍮덈쾲븯寃 諛쒖깮븯뒗 씠쑀뿉 빐꽌뒗 ‘꽦蹂꾩뿉 뵲瑜 빐遺븰쟻 李⑥씠’ ‘냽援 醫낅ぉ 듅씠쟻씤 吏곸엫’쓣 썝씤쑝濡 뱾 닔 엳떎. 뿬옄뒗 궓옄뿉 鍮꾪빐 臾대쫷쓽 븞젙꽦쓣 떞떦빐 二쇰뒗 洹쇱쑁怨 씤媛 긽쟻쑝濡 옉怨 빟븯硫19, 꼻 怨⑤컲쑝濡 씤빐 꽇떎由щ꽕媛덈옒洹 媛(quadriceps angle, Q媛; 쐞븵뿁뜦堉덇떆 臾대쫷堉 以묒븰쓣 씠 꽑怨 臾대쫷堉 以묒븰怨 臾대쫷堉 嫄곗튇硫댁쓣 씠 꽑씠 留뚮굹꽌 씠猷⑤뒗 媛)怨 諛뽮돕씠 媛(valgus angle)씠 겙 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎19,20. Q媛곸씠 겕硫 臾대쫷堉덉쓽 鍮꾩젙긽쟻씤 솢二쇰줈 씤빐 臾대쫷堉덉 꽇떎由щ펷 뿰怨⑥쓽 넀긽쓣 珥덈옒븷 닔 엳怨21,22, 겙 諛뽮돕씠 媛곸 슫룞 以 臾대쫷愿젅뿉 諛뽮돕씠 옒(valgus force)쓣 利앷떆耳 븵떗옄씤 諛 궡痢↔퀋씤쓽 遺긽 쐞뿕쓣 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎20,22,23. 삉븳 냽援 寃쎄린 以 諛섎났릺뒗 젏봽 李⑹, 媛먯냽, 뵾遊뉙똿(pivoting), 而ㅽ똿(cutting) 벑쓽 吏곸엫 臾대쫷愿젅뿉 鍮꾪由쇨낵 異⑷꺽쓣 珥덈옒븯뿬 븵떗옄씤 諛 諛섎떖뿰怨⑥쓽 넀긽 쐞뿕쓣 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎19,24. 떎젣濡 理쒓렐 蹂닿퀬맂 뿰援ъ뿉 쓽븯硫 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔쓽 븵떗옄씤 넀긽 궓옄 꽑닔뿉 鍮꾪빐 2–8諛 젙룄源뚯 넂 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎23,25.

븳렪, 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌 怨쇨굅쓽 떖媛곹븳 臾대쫷 遺긽 씠젰 꽑닔뱾쓽 洹쇨린뒫쓣 뼥뼱쑉由ш퀬 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 珥덈옒븷 닔 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯쑝硫9-12, 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 룊媛 떆 諛섎뱶떆 怨좊젮빐빞 븯뒗 슂냼濡 젣떆븳 諛 엳떎9. 씠윭븳 諛곌꼍뿉 洹쇨굅븯뿬 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 쟾泥 긽옄瑜 臾대쫷 닔닠 씠젰씠 엳뒗 吏묐떒怨 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 吏묐떒쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬 遺꾩꽍븳 寃곌낵, 삁긽怨쇰뒗 떎瑜닿쾶 媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1 諛 180°∙sec–1쓽 紐⑤뱺 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 蹂씤, 利 PT, 泥댁쨷떦 PT, 뼇履 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉뿉꽌 吏묐떒 媛 쑀쓽誘명븳 李⑥씠媛 뾾뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 궓옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 遺긽 쑀臾댁뿉 뵲씪 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰쓣 鍮꾧탳븳 Schiltz 벑9쓽 뿰援ъ뒗 긽諛섎릺뒗 寃곌낵씠떎.

Schiltz 벑9뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 臾대쫷 遺긽 寃쏀뿕씠 엳뒗 꽑닔 吏묐떒 媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1뿉꽌쓽 룄洹쇰젰씠 議곌뎔씤 嫄닿컯븳 꽦씤쓽 룊洹(빟 266 N∙m)뿉룄 誘몄튂吏 紐삵븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗怨, 遺긽 寃쏀뿕씠 뾾뒗 꽑닔 吏묐떒뿉 鍮꾪빐 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎(媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1쓽 援ъ떖꽦 룄洹쇰젰, 媛곸냽룄 120°∙sec–1쓽 렪떖꽦 援쏀옒洹쇰젰 벑)쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 듅엳, 넀긽떦븳 븯吏 넀긽諛쏆 븡 븯吏쓽 룄洹 諛 援쏀옓洹 PT뒗 嫄곗쓽 紐⑤뱺 媛곸냽룄(30∙60∙180°∙sec–1)뿉꽌 빟 14%–21%쓽 떖媛곹븳 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎. 洹몃뱾 씠윭븳 寃곌낵媛 굹궃 씠쑀뿉 빐 ‘遺덉땐遺꾪븳 옱솢쓽 寃곌낵’ 삉뒗 ‘遺긽 遺쐞瑜 蹂댄샇븯湲 쐞빐 떎移 떎由ъ뿉 泥댁쨷쓣 떍吏 븡쑝젮怨 븯뒗 洹쇱떊寃쎄퀎쓽 蹂댁긽 湲곗쟾’怨 愿젴씠 엳떎怨 꽕紐낇븯떎9.

諛섎㈃ 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂瑜 諛쏆 紐⑤뱺 꽑닔媛 理쒖냼 1媛쒖썡 씠긽(理쒕 9媛쒖썡)쓽 쟾臾몄쟻씤 옱솢 怨쇱젙쓣 嫄곗퀜 쑝濡 蹂듦븳 寃껋쑝濡 議곗궗릺뿀쑝硫, 寃곌뎅 씠윭븳 슫룞 以묒옱 李⑥씠濡 씤빐 꽑뻾뿰援ъ 긽諛섎맂 寃곌낵媛 굹궗쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 씠윭븳 媛젙 蹂 뿰援 寃곌낵뿉꽌(Table 5), 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂瑜 떆뻾븳 떎由 洹몃9(OL) 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂瑜 떆뻾븯吏 븡 굹癒몄 떎由 洹몃9(利, NL, DL, NDL)怨 鍮꾩듂븳 洹쇰젰 닔以쓣 蹂댁씤 젏씠 씪遺遺 뮮諛쏆묠븷 닔 엳떎. 뼢썑 슫룞 以묒옱 슚怨쇱뿉 븳 紐낇솗븳 寃곕줎쓣 뼸湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 臾대쫷 遺긽 썑 옱솢쓣 넻빐 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 15% 씠궡濡18,26 以꾩씤 吏묐떒怨 洹몃젃吏 븡 吏묐떒 媛꾩쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 李⑥씠瑜 諛앺엳뒗 뿰援ш 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎.

븳렪 臾대쫷 遺긽 씠젰씠 엳뒗 꽑닔뱾쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 鍮꾩쑉쓣 꽭遺쟻쑝濡 궡렣蹂 寃곌낵, 븵떗옄씤 옱嫄댁닠 泥섏튂瑜 諛쏆 꽑닔쓽 寃쎌슦 6紐 以 떒 븳 紐낅룄 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠吏 븡 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 諛섎㈃ 諛섎떖뿰怨 諛 堉덉뿰怨 넀긽뿉 븳 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂瑜 諛쏆 3紐낆쓽 꽑닔뒗 紐⑤몢 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹굹 遺긽 삎깭 諛 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂뿉 뵲씪 洹쇰젰 쉶蹂듭뿉 李⑥씠媛 諛쒖깮븷 媛뒫꽦룄 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 듅엳 뿰怨 넀긽 珥덇린뿉 쟻젅븯寃 移섎즺릺吏 紐삵븯硫 븙솕릺뒗 寃쎌슦媛 留롮븘27 씠윭븳 寃곌낵媛 굹궗쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

븯吏留 삁긽怨 떎瑜닿쾶 닔닠 씠젰씠 뾾뒗 꽑닔뱾쓽 媛쒖씤蹂 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 궡렣蹂 寃곌낵뿉꽌룄 3紐낆쓽 꽑닔媛 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 솗씤릺뿀떎. 씠뱾 以 媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1뿉꽌 22%쓽 룄洹쇰젰 醫뚯슦 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씤 1紐낆쓽 寃쎌슦, 룊냼 썕젴쓣 닔뻾븯뒗 뜲 吏옣 뾾뿀吏留 臾대쫷堉 留덉같寃궗(patella grind test) 떆 吏꾨떒릺吏 븡 臾대쫷꽇떎由 넻利(patellofemoral pain)쓣 샇냼븯떎. 洹몃윭굹 굹癒몄 2紐낆쓽 寃쎌슦 듅蹂꾪븳 넻利 諛 썝씤 뾾씠 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 臾대쫷 遺긽쓽 꽑뻾슂씤쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뼱솕湲 븣臾몄뿉16-18 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 寃궗뿉꽌 씠뱾怨 媛숈씠 떖媛곹븳 醫뚯슦 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽뱾뿉寃뚮뒗 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 쉶蹂듭떆궎뒗 슫룞씠 븘슂븷 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

뿕由ы듃 슫룞꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 븳 紐뉖챺 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 뼇履 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 李⑥씠媛 15% 씠긽씪 寃쎌슦 떖媛곹븳 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎 삉뒗 蹂묒쟻씤 긽깭媛 엳뒗 寃껋쑝濡 媛꾩<븯怨 遺꾩꽍 긽뿉꽌 젣쇅븯怨 엳떎18. 씠윭븳 湲곗쓽 쟻슜 꽑닔뱾쓽 洹쒕쾾쟻씤 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰쓣 젣떆븯뒗 뜲 쟻빀븳 諛⑸쾿씠떎. 鍮꾨줉 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 긽씠 냼닔濡 젣븳릺뼱 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 洹쒕쾾쟻씤 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 媛믪쓣 젣떆븷 닔뒗 뾾뿀吏留, 異붽쟻씤 젙蹂대 젣怨듯븯湲 쐞빐 15%瑜 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 而룹삤봽濡 쟻슜븯뿬 씠李⑥쟻씤 遺꾩꽍쓣 떆뻾븯떎.

洹 寃곌낵 媛곸냽룄 60°∙sec–1뿉꽌 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 빟 2.91–3.01 N∙m∙kg–1濡 굹궗쑝硫, 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦 빟 1.55–1.59 N∙m∙kg–1濡 굹궗떎. 씠윭븳 寃곌낵뒗 Park 벑14씠 젣떆븳 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 臾대쫷愿젅 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 룊洹(룄洹: 빟 2.39–2.66 N∙m∙kg–1, 援쏀옒洹: 빟 1.24–1.33 N∙m∙kg–1)蹂대떎 넂 닔移섏씠硫, Hadzić 벑16씠 젣떆븳 뒳濡쒕쿋땲븘 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 룊洹(룄洹: 2.24–2.29 N∙m∙kg–1, 援쏀옒洹: 빟 1.33–1.38 N∙m∙kg–1)蹂대떎룄 넂 寃곌낵씠떎. 꽑뻾뿰援ъ뿉 鍮꾪빐 蹂 뿰援 寃곌낵뿉꽌 泥댁쨷떦 PT媛 넂寃 굹궃 씠쑀뒗 痢≪젙 떆湲 諛 씤醫 李⑥씠 벑怨 媛숈 떎瑜 슂씤쓣 諛곗젣븷 닔 뾾吏留, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 15% 而룹삤봽瑜 쟻슜븳 썑 PT 媛믪씠 냼룺 긽듅븳 寃껋쓣 誘몃(뼱 蹂 븣 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽쓣 젣쇅븳 寃껊룄 썝씤쑝濡 옉슜뻽쓣 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 븳렪, 蹂 뿰援 긽쓽 H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 빟 51%–55%濡 Hadzić 벑16씠 蹂닿퀬븳 59%–60%蹂대떎뒗 떎냼 궙寃 굹궗떎. 씠뒗 蹂 뿰援 긽옄뱾쓽 꽇떎由щ꽕媛덈옒洹쇱쓽 PT媛 뮘꽇떎由ш렐쓽 PT뿉 鍮꾪빐 긽쟻쑝濡 넂寃 痢≪젙릺뿀湲 븣臾몄쑝濡, 뼢썑 援궡 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 몴以쟻씤 H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 젣떆瑜 쐞븳 뜑 留롮 뿰援ъ 뿰援 媛 鍮꾧탳媛 씠猷⑥뼱졇빞 븷 寃껋씠떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 媛곸냽룄 180°∙sec–1뿉꽌 굹궃 룄洹쇱쓽 泥댁쨷떦 PT뒗 빟 1.91–1.92 N∙m∙kg–1怨 援쏀옒洹쇱쓽 寃쎌슦뒗 빟 1.08–1.10 N∙m∙kg–1濡 굹궗쑝硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉 57%–58%濡 굹궗떎. 씠뒗 Park 벑14씠 蹂닿퀬븳 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 룊洹(룄洹: 1.45–1.67 N∙m∙kg–1, 援쏀옒洹: 0.85–0.96 N∙m∙kg–1)蹂대떎 떎냼 넂 寃곌낵씠硫, H/Q 鍮꾩쑉쓽 寃쎌슦 媛곸냽룄媛 利앷븿뿉 뵲씪 넂븘吏꾨떎怨 蹂닿퀬븳 떎瑜 꽑뻾뿰援щ뱾17,28怨 씪移섑븯뒗 寃곌낵씠떎.

蹂 뿰援щ뒗 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓣 긽쑝濡 怨쇨굅 닔닠쟻 泥섏튂媛 븘슂뻽뜕 臾대쫷愿젅 遺긽 씠젰쓣 怨좊젮븯뿬 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 듅꽦쓣 鍮꾧탳∙遺꾩꽍븳 泥 踰덉㎏ 뿰援щ줈꽌 쓽誘멸 엳떎. 삉븳, 15% 씠긽쓽 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎쓣 蹂댁씠뒗 긽쓣 젣쇅븳 遺꾩꽍쓣 넻빐 꽇떎由щ꽕媛덈옒洹쇨낵 뮘꽇떎由ш렐쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 媛믪쓣 젣떆븯怨 엳떎뒗 젏뿉꽌룄 쓽誘멸 엳떎. 蹂 뿰援щ 넻빐 뼸뼱吏 臾대쫷愿젅쓽 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰 媛믪 뼢썑 븳援 뿬옄 봽濡쒕냽援 꽑닔뱾쓽 臾대쫷愿젅 洹쇰젰쓣 룊媛븯嫄곕굹 옱솢 썑 蹂듦瑜 뙋떒븯뒗 뜲 엳뼱 李멸퀬 옄猷뚮줈 솢슜맆 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠떎.

븯吏留 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 떎쓬怨 媛숈 젣븳젏쓣 媛吏怨 엳떎. 泥レ㎏, 臾대쫷愿젅 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰뿉 媛꾩젒쟻쑝濡 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튌 닔 엳뒗 諛쒕ぉ 諛 뿁뜦愿젅怨 媛숈 떎瑜 떊泥 遺쐞쓽 닔닠 씠젰 怨좊젮븯吏 紐삵뻽떎. 몮吏, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 젣떆맂 遺긽 씠쇅뿉 뿬옄 냽援 꽑닔뱾뿉寃 諛쒖깮 媛뒫븳 떎瑜 臾대쫷 遺긽쑝濡 씤븳 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎源뚯뒗 꽕紐낇븷 닔 뾾떎. 遺긽씠 벑냽꽦 洹쇰젰뿉 誘몄튂뒗 쁺뼢쓣 醫 뜑 紐낇솗븯寃 諛앺엳湲 쐞빐꽌뒗 뼢썑 씠 愿젴맂 뜑 留롮 뿰援ш 吏꾪뻾릺뼱빞 븯硫, 꽑蹂꾧궗(screening test)뿉꽌 諛쒓껄맂 떖媛곹븳 醫뚯슦 洹쇰젰 遺덇퇏삎씠 떎젣 遺긽 諛쒖깮怨 뼱뼚븳 뿰愿꽦씠 엳뒗吏 諛앺엳뒗 쟾뼢쟻 뿰援щ룄 吏꾪뻾맆 븘슂媛 엳떎.

Conflict of Interest
No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.
Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the Sungkyunkwan University and the BK21 FOUR (Graduate School Innovation) funded by the Ministry of Education (MOE, Korea) and National Research Foundation of Korea.
Author Contributions

Conceptualization: All authors. Data curation, Formal analysis: HK, MS. Funding acquisition, Methodology: MS. Visualization: HK, IL. Writing–Original Draft: all authors. Writing–Review & Editing: All authors.

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