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The Association between Psychosocial Stress and Type of Physical Activity in Middle Aged Adult: A Community-based Cohort Study
Korean J Sports Med 2023;41:153-162
Published online September 1, 2023;  https://doi.org/10.5763/kjsm.2023.41.3.153
© 2023 The Korean Society of Sports Medicine.

DooYong Park1, Jae-Young Park2, EunKyung Kim3, YeonSoo Kim1

1Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Seoul National University, Seoul, 2Department of Sport, Kyungil University, Gyeongsan, 3Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea
Correspondence to: Yeon Soo Kim
Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea
Tel: +82-2-880-7794, Fax: +82-2-880-7794, E-mail: kys0101@snu.ac.kr
Received April 14, 2023; Revised June 30, 2023; Accepted July 12, 2023.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
 Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the associations between type of moderate-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) and psychological stress in South Korean, based on the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. The subjects of this study were 2,891 Korean men and women aged 40 to 69, who completed health examination from 2011 to 2012.
Methods: The type of MVPA was measured by using self-reported physical activity questionnaire. A high psychological stress was determined by scoring Psychological Well-being Index Short Form (≥ 27). Logistic regression analysis, adjusting other confounding factors, was conducted to identify the association of type of MVPA level with psychological stress (p<0.05).
Results: Participants who leisure-related MVPA of ≥ 150 min/week was less likely have to high psychological stress than < 150 min/week (odds ratio [OR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57–0.92). From the analysis of gender, leisure-related (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.35–0.72) and work-related (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41–0.97) MVPA of ≥ 150 min/week were associated with low psychological stress in men, but women was not significantly associated. From the analysis of age, leisure-related MVPA of ≥ 150 min/week were associated with low psychological stress in middle age group (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53–0.92), but elderly group was not significantly associated. Differences in psychological stress OR according to type of MVPA time were observed about classification of occupations.
Conclusion: High level of leisure related physical activity were independently associated with reducing risk for psychological stress. Also, encouraged MVPA by gender, age, classification of occupations could help to improve psychological stress levels in middle-aged or older adults.
Keywords : Exercise, Psychological stress, Mental health, Aged, Cohort studies
꽌 濡

뒪듃젅뒪뒗 씠吏덉쟻씤 솚寃쎌뿉 쟻쓳븯뒗 怨쇱젙쑝濡쒖꽌, 떊泥댁쟻, 깮솕븰쟻, 씤吏-뻾룞쟻, 媛먯젙쟻 빆긽꽦쓣 쐞삊븯뒗 긽깭씠떎1. 2021뀈 援誘쇨굔媛뺤쁺뼇議곗궗 寃곌낵뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 궓꽦쓽 26.2%, 뿬꽦쓽 31.3%媛 씪긽깮솢 以 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 留롮씠 뒓떎怨 쓳떟븯쑝硫2, 援젣뿰빀(United Nations) COVID-19濡 쑀諛쒕맂 뙩뜲誘 긽솴뿉꽌 궗쉶쟻 怨좊┰媛, 媛먯뿼뿉 븳 怨듯룷媛 쑀諛쒗븳 뒪듃젅뒪媛 꽭怨꾩쟻쑝濡 겙 臾몄젣媛 릺怨 엳쓬쓣 떆궗븯떎3. 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 뿬윭 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 愿由ы븯뒗 諛⑸쾿쑝濡 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 沅뚭퀬븯怨 엳뒗뜲, 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뒪룷痢, 슫룞쓣 룷븿븯뿬 怨④꺽洹쇱쓽 닔異뺤쑝濡 씪뼱굹뒗 떊泥댁쓽 紐⑤뱺 吏곸엫쓣 쓽誘명븯硫, 吏곸뾽, 吏묒븞씪, 뿬媛떆媛 벑 떎뼇븳 쁺뿭뿉꽌 떊泥댄솢룞씠 씠猷⑥뼱吏怨 엳떎4.

꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 떊泥댄솢룞怨 슫룞 媛쒖씤쓽 떖由ъ쟻 嫄닿컯긽깭瑜 湲띿젙쟻쑝濡 蹂솕떆궗 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 빆븷 닔 엳뒗 뒫젰쓣 뼸寃뚮걫 룄以떎怨 蹂닿퀬븯쑝硫5, 떎젣濡 슫룞 湲곕텇쓣 뼢긽떆궗 닔 엳뒗 뒪듃젅뒪 愿由щ룄援щ줈 쟻빀븯떎뒗 寃껋씠 엯利앸맂 諛 엳떎6. 삉븳 寃щ뵜 닔 엳뒗 泥대젰 닔以蹂대떎 怨쇰룄븳 뒪듃젅뒪媛 二쇱뼱吏뒗 寃쎌슦 떎뼇븳 吏덈퀝뿉 嫄몃┫ 쐞뿕씠 넂븘吏뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺怨 엳뒗뜲, 씠뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬瑜 넻븳 泥대젰 利앹쭊씠 뒪듃젅뒪 愿由щ퓧留 븘땲씪 떎뼇븳 吏덈퀝쓣 삁諛⑺븷 닔 엳뒗 슂씤엫쓣 떆궗븳떎7.

쁽옱源뚯 吏꾪뻾맂 떊泥댄솢룞怨 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 留롮留, 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓣 긽꽭븯寃 援щ텇븯뿬 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븳 뿰援щ뒗 냼닔뿉 遺덇낵븯떎. 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓣 援щ텇븯뿬 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞븳 븳 뿰援щ뒗 李몄뿬븳 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 媛뺣룄, 鍮덈룄濡쒕쭔 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 쑀삎쓣 援щ텇븯뿬 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎뿉 뵲瑜 긽꽭븳 鍮꾧탳瑜 븯吏 紐삵븳 븳怨꾧 엳뿀떎8. 쑀궗븳 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 遺遺 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓣 吏곸뾽 諛 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쑝濡쒕쭔 援щ텇븯뿬 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 빐 솗씤븯湲 뼱젮썱쑝硫9,10, 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 怨좊젮븯뿬 湲띿젙쟻 媛먯젙怨쇱쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븳 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 룷븿릺뼱 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎媛 룆由쎌쟻씤 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎11. 삉 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 “white collar”濡쒕쭔 援щ텇븯뿬 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以怨 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 븣臾몄뿉, 떎젣 吏곸뾽쓽 쑀삎뿉 뵲瑜 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬媛 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 뼱뼚븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 蹂댁씠뒗吏 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎12.

뵲씪꽌 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 쑀삎쓣 吏곸뾽 愿젴, 吏묒븞씪 愿젴, 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬, 媛 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 꽦蹂, 뿰졊蹂, 吏곸뾽 닔以蹂, 吏곸뾽 쑀삎蹂꾨줈 뼱뼚븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 媛吏뒗吏 솗씤븯怨좎옄 븳떎.

뿰援 諛⑸쾿

蹂 뿰援ъ“궗뒗 吏뿭궗쉶 湲곕컲 議곗궗 떎떆湲곌씤 怨좊젮븰援 쓽怨쇰븰 븞궛蹂묒썝怨 꽌슱븰援 깮紐낆쑄由ъ쐞썝쉶쓽 듅씤쓣 嫄곗낀쑝硫, 뿰援 紐⑹쟻怨 궡슜쓣 뿰援 李몄뿬옄뿉寃 씠빐떆궓 썑 뿰援 李몄뿬 꽌硫대룞쓽꽌뿉 꽌紐낇븳 긽옄쓽 옄猷뚮 씠슜븯떎(No. E2112/001-009).

1. 뿰援 긽

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援씤쓣 긽쑝濡 떦눊蹂, 怨좏삁븬, 怨⑤떎怨듭쬆, 鍮꾨쭔 諛 궗利앺썑援 벑 留뚯꽦吏덊솚 諛쒖깮쓣 삁諛⑺븯湲 쐞븯뿬 嫄닿컯 諛 깮솢뒿愿 젙蹂 벑怨 愿怨꾨 洹쒕챸븯湲 쐞븳 洹쒕え 肄뷀샇듃 議곗궗씤 븳援씤 쑀쟾泥 뿭븰議곗궗(Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES)뿉꽌 뼸 뜲씠꽣瑜 넗濡 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎. 2011–2012뀈 KoGES 吏뿭궗쉶 湲곕컲 肄뷀샇듃 뿰援ъ뿉 李몄뿬븳 븞궛 吏뿭 49–79꽭 以묐뀈 꽦씤 諛 끂씤 5,012紐 以, 以묒슂 蹂닔뿉 寃곗륫씠 엳뒗 긽옄 2,121紐낆쓣 젣쇅븳 珥 2,891紐낆쓽 뜲씠꽣瑜 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎(Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Study participants among data of Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) 2011–2012.

2. 痢≪젙 蹂씤

1) 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎

떊泥댄솢룞 꽕臾몄 겕寃 ‘吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞’, ‘吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞’, ‘뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞’쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 솢룞留뚯쓣 엯젰븯룄濡 援ъ꽦븯떎. 癒쇱, 嫄룰린瑜 젣쇅븳 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 洹븯쓽 吏곸옣 씪濡 媛踰쇱슫 寃껋쓣 굹瑜대뒗 寃껉낵 媛숈 以묎컙 젙룄쓽 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 궇 硫곗튌엯땲源?”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 씠슜븯뿬 ‘吏곸뾽 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二)’쓣 궛異쒗븯떎. 吏곸뾽 愿젴 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二) “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 吏곸옣씪濡 臾닿굅슫 寃껋쓣 굹瑜닿굅굹, 옒뱺 옉뾽쓣 븯嫄곕굹, 옒뱺 嫄댁텞씪, 삉뒗 怨꾨떒 삤瑜닿린 媛숈 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 硫곗튌 룞븞 븯뀲뒿땲源?”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 씠슜븯떎.

吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二)쓣 궛異쒗븯湲 쐞빐 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 젙썝씠굹 留덈떦뿉꽌 媛踰쇱슫 吏 삷湲곌린, 벝湲, 李쎈Ц 떐湲곗 媛숈 以묎컙 젙룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 踰덉뿉 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 궇 硫곗튌엯땲源?” “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 吏묒븞뿉꽌 媛踰쇱슫 臾쇨굔쓣 굹瑜닿굅굹, 쑀由ъ갹쓣 떐嫄곕굹, 留덈(瑜 떐嫄곕굹, 吏묒븞쓣 떐뒗 寃껉낵 媛숈 以묎컙 젙룄쓽 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 踰덉뿉 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 궇 硫곗튌엯땲源?”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 뜑븯뿬 遺꾩꽍뿉 씠슜븯떎. 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二)쓣 궛異쒗븯湲 쐞빐 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 젙썝씠굹 留덈떦뿉꽌 臾닿굅슫 吏 삷湲곌린, 굹臾 履쇨컻湲, 늿 移섏슦湲, 븙 뙆湲곗 媛숈 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 踰덉뿉 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 궇 硫곗튌엯땲源?”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 씠슜븯떎.

뿬媛 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二)쓣 궛異쒗븯湲 쐞빐 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 뿬媛떆媛꾩뿉 鍮⑤━ 嫄룰린, 蹂댄넻 냽룄濡 옄쟾嫄 湲, 蹂댄넻 냽룄濡 닔쁺븯湲, 蹂듭떇 뀒땲뒪 媛숈 以묎컙 젙룄쓽 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 踰덉뿉 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 궇씠 硫곗튌엯땲源?”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 씠슜븯떎. 뿬媛 愿젴 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞 떆媛(遺/二)쓣 궛異쒗븯湲 쐞빐 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 뿬媛떆媛꾩뿉 뿉뼱濡쒕퉭, 떖由ш린, 鍮좊Ⅸ 옄쟾嫄 湲, 씤씪씤뒪耳씠듃, 異뺢뎄 寃쎄린 삉뒗 鍮좊Ⅸ 닔쁺怨 媛숈 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 븳 踰덉뿉 쟻뼱룄 10遺 씠긽 吏냽븳 궇 씪二쇱씪 以 硫곗튌엯땲源”뿉 엯젰븳 媛믪쓣 씠슜븯떎.

媛 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以뿉 뵲瑜 鍮꾧탳瑜 쐞빐 꽑뻾 뿰援щ 李멸퀬븯뿬 李몄뿬 닔以뿉 湲곗쓣 꽕젙븯떎13. 吏곸뾽 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以 吏곸뾽 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞, 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞, 嫄룰린 솢룞쓣 뜑븳 媛믪쓣, 吏묒븞씪 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞, 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 뜑븳 媛믪쓣, 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以 뿬媛 愿젴 以묎컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞, 寃⑸젹븳 떊泥댄솢룞, 嫄룰린 솢룞쓣 뜑븳 媛믪쓣 넗濡 븯뿬 媛 솢룞 쑀삎蹂꾨줈 ‘150遺/二 誘몃쭔’, ‘150遺/二 씠긽’쑝濡 援щ텇븯떎.

2) 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪

궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 痢≪젙 젙떊怨쇱쟻 臾몄젣瑜 吏꾨떒븯湲 쐞븳 紐⑹쟻씠 븘땶 젙긽씤쓽 뒪듃젅뒪 닔以쓣 룊媛븯湲 쐞빐 媛쒕컻맂 Psychosocial Well-being Index-Short Form (PWI-SF)瑜 넻빐 吏꾪뻾븯떎. PWI-SF뒗 Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire뿉 湲곕컲븯뿬 18媛쒖쓽 꽕臾 빆紐⑹쑝濡 媛쒕컻릺뿀쑝硫, 4媛쒖쓽 由ъ빱듃 泥숇룄濡 媛 빆紐⑸떦 0–3젏源뚯 젏닔瑜 遺뿬븯뿬 빀怨 젏닔媛 넂쓣닔濡 떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 닔以씠 넂떎뒗 寃껋쓣 뙋蹂꾪븯뒗 룄援щ줈 솢슜릺뼱 솕떎9. PWI-SF쓽 궡쟻 떊猶곕룄 怨꾩닔뒗 Cronbach’s α=0.76濡 吏곸뾽 吏묐떒 듅꽦뿉 뵲瑜 뒪듃젅뒪 젙룄瑜 뙆븙븯湲곗뿉 쟻빀븳 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀湲 븣臾몄뿉14, 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌쓽 쁽옱 吏곸뾽 닔以蹂 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 솗씤븯湲곗뿉 쟻빀븯떎怨 뙋떒븯떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲씪 27젏 씠긽쓣 怨좎쐞뿕援, 9–26젏쓣 옞옱쟻 뒪듃젅뒪援, 8젏 씠븯瑜 嫄닿컯援곗쑝濡 洹쒖젙븯쑝硫, 嫄닿컯援, 옞옱쟻 뒪듃젅뒪援곗쓣 쐞뿕援곗쑝濡 옱遺꾨쪟븯뿬 理쒖쥌쟻쑝濡 쐞뿕援곌낵 怨좎쐞뿕援곗쑝濡 援щ텇븳 뮘 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎14.

3) 꽕臾몄“궗 諛 湲고 蹂닔

쓬二 뿬遺뒗 “洹븯뒗 썝옒 닠쓣 紐 留덉떆嫄곕굹 삉뒗 泥섏쓬遺꽣 닠쓣 븞 留덉떗땲源?”씪뒗 吏덈Ц뿉 ‘삁’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘쓬二 寃쏀뿕 뾾쓬,’ ‘븘땲삤’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 “吏湲덈룄 留덉떗땲源?”씪뒗 異붽 吏덈Ц쓣 븯뿬 ‘븘땲삤’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘怨쇨굅 쓬二,’ ‘삁’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘쁽옱 쓬二’濡 遺꾨쪟븳 썑 遺꾩꽍뿉 룷븿븯떎. 쁽옱 씉뿰 뿬遺뒗 “洹븯뒗 吏湲덇퉴吏 떞諛곕 넻뼱 5媛(100媛쒕퉬) 씠긽 뵾썱뒿땲源?”씪뒗 吏덈Ц뿉 ‘삁’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘씉뿰 寃쏀뿕 뾾쓬,’ ‘븘땲삤’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 “吏湲덈룄 뵾슦떗땲源?”씪뒗 異붽 吏덈Ц쓣 븯뿬 ‘븘땲삤’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘怨쇨굅 씉뿰,’ ‘삁’濡 떟븷 寃쎌슦 ‘쁽옱 씉뿰’쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븳 썑 遺꾩꽍뿉 룷븿븯떎. 닔硫댁떆媛(sleep duration) “洹븯媛 떎젣濡 二쇱쨷뿉 諛ㅼ뿉 옞쓣 옍 떆媛꾩 룊洹 紐 떆媛꾩씠뿀뒿땲源?” “洹븯뒗 吏궃 븳 떖 룞븞 二쇰쭚뿉 룊냼뿉 왂 紐 떆뿉 옞옄由ъ뿉 뱾뿀뒿땲源?”뿉 떟蹂븳 떆媛꾩쓣 넗濡 [(二쇱쨷 닔硫댁떆媛×5)竊(二쇰쭚 닔硫댁떆媛×2)]÷7濡 씪씪 닔硫댁떆媛꾩쓣 怨꾩궛븳 썑, 뿰냽蹂닔濡 씠슜븯떎. 珥 醫뚯떇떆媛꾩 “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 二쇱쨷 븯猷⑥뿉 븠븘꽌 蹂대궦 떆媛꾩 蹂댄넻 뼹留덈굹 맗땲源?” “吏궃 씪二쇱씪媛 二쇰쭚 븯猷⑥뿉 븠븘꽌 蹂대궦 떆媛꾩 蹂댄넻 뼹留덈굹 맗땲源?”뿉 떟蹂븳 떆媛꾩쓣 넗濡 [(二쇱쨷 醫뚯떇떆媛×5)竊(二쇰쭚 醫뚯떇떆媛×2)]÷7濡 씪씪 珥 醫뚯떇떆媛꾩쓣 怨꾩궛븳 썑, 뿰냽蹂닔濡 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎. 媛議 냼뱷닔以 “洹븯 媛젙쓽 썡 룊洹 닔엯 뼱뒓 젙룄 릺떗땲源?”씪뒗 吏덈Ц뿉 ‘50留 썝 誘몃쭔’, ‘50留 썝–100留 썝 誘몃쭔’쑝濡 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘100留 썝 誘몃쭔’, ‘100留 썝–150留 썝 誘몃쭔’, ‘150留 썝–200留 썝 誘몃쭔’쑝濡 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘100留 썝–200留 썝’, ‘200留 썝–300留 썝 誘몃쭔’씠씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘200留 썝–300留 썝’, ‘300留 썝–400留 썝 誘몃쭔’씠씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘300留 썝–400留 썝’, ‘400留 썝–600留 썝 誘몃쭔’, ‘600留 썝 씠긽’쑝濡 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘400留 썝 씠긽’쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븳 썑 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎. 쁽옱 吏곸뾽援곗 “洹븯猿섏꽌뒗 쁽옱 뼱뼡 씪쓣 븯怨 怨꾩떗땲源? (吏곸뾽遺꾨쪟 14肄붾뱶)”뿉 븳 吏덈Ц뿉 ‘쟾臾몄쭅’, ‘愿由ъ쭅’, ‘궗臾댁쭅’씠씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅’쑝濡, ‘뙋留ㅼ쭅’, ‘꽌鍮꾩뒪 醫낆궗옄’씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘뙋留∙꽌鍮꾩뒪吏’쑝濡, ‘냽뾽, 궛由쇱뾽, 닔궛뾽, 닔졄뾽 醫낆궗옄’, ‘湲곕뒫怨 諛 湲곌퀎議곗옉 醫낆궗옄’, ‘愿묒뾽 醫낆궗옄’씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲곗닠吏’쑝濡, ‘二쇰 삉뒗 媛궗 醫낆궗옄’씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘媛궗 醫낆궗옄’濡, 洹 쇅 吏곸뾽씠씪怨 쓳떟븳 寃쎌슦 ‘湲고 吏곸뾽’쑝濡 遺꾨쪟븯떎. 궣쓽 吏덉 떊泥댁쟻∙젙떊쟻 嫄닿컯뿉 븳 蹂몄씤쓽 嫄닿컯긽깭瑜 二쇨쟻쑝濡 痢≪젙븯뒗 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36)瑜 異뺤빟븳 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12)濡 痢≪젙븯뒗뜲, 떊泥댁쟻∙젙떊쟻 嫄닿컯쓣 痢≪젙븷 븣 SF-36蹂대떎 異뺤빟맂 꽕臾몄씠 洹쒕え 肄뷀샇듃 뿰援ъ뿉 뜑 쟻빀븳 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎15. SF-12 꽕臾몄쓽 궡쟻 떦룄뒗 0.96, 떊猶곕룄뒗 0.82濡, 떊泥댁쟻 湲곕뒫(physical function), 떊泥댁쟻 뿭븷(role-physical), 넻利(bodily pain), 씪諛섍굔媛(general health)뿉 븳 빆紐⑹쓣 떊泥댁쟻 嫄닿컯(physical health, PCS)쑝濡 援щ텇븯怨, 솢젰(vitality), 궗쉶쟻 湲곕뒫(social functioning), 媛먯젙쟻 뿭븷(role-emotional), 젙떊쟻 嫄닿컯(mental health)뿉 븳 빆紐⑹쓣 젙떊쟻 嫄닿컯(mental health, MCS)쑝濡 援щ텇븯뿬 媛곴컖쓽 젏닔瑜 빀궛븯떎15. 빀궛맂 젏닔媛 넂쓣닔濡 궣쓽 吏덉씠 넂 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒븯쑝硫, 理쒖쥌쟻쑝濡 PCS MCS뿉 븳 젏닔瑜 빀궛븳 떊泥댁쟻 젙떊쟻 궣쓽 吏덉뿉 븳 珥 젏닔瑜 뿰냽蹂닔濡 遺꾩꽍뿉 솢슜븯떎.

3. 넻怨 泥섎━

蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 옄猷 遺꾩꽍쓣 쐞빐 STATA/IC 14.1 (STATA Corp.)쓣 궗슜븯쑝硫, 뿰援 긽옄쓽 씤援ы븰쟻 듅꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 移댁씠젣怨 寃젙쓣 넻븳 鍮덈룄 遺꾩꽍怨 룊洹좉컪 궛異쒖쓣 넻븳 湲곗닠 遺꾩꽍쓣 떎떆븯怨, 媛 蹂닔뿉 븳 諛깅텇쑉 삉뒗 룊洹좉낵 몴以렪李⑤ Table 1뿉 굹깉떎. 꽦蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 濡쒖뒪떛 쉶洹遺꾩꽍(logistic regression analysis)쓣 씠슜븯뿬 援먯감鍮(odds ratio, OR) 95% 떊猶곌뎄媛(confidence interval, CI)쓣 궛異쒗븯떎(Table 2). 뿰졊蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 濡쒖뒪떛 쉶洹遺꾩꽍쓣 씠슜븯뿬 OR怨 95% CI瑜 궛異쒗븯떎(Table 3). 留덉留됱쑝濡 吏곸뾽 쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 濡쒖뒪떛 쉶洹遺꾩꽍쓣 씠슜븯뿬 OR怨 95% CI瑜 궛異쒗븯떎(Table 4).

Table 1 . Baseline characteristics of study participants

Characteristic of risk factorTotalMaleFemalep-value
No. of participants2,8911,4771,414
Age (yr)58.20±7.1858.12±7.0358.28±7.330.541
Low-income level (%)12.598.4016.97<0.001
Quality of life score48.45±5.2249.46±4.3147.39±5.86<0.001
Health behavior
Sleep duration (hr/day)6.11±1.206.29±1.155.93±1.22<0.001
Daily sitting time (hr/day)5.76±2.665.88±2.905.64±2.380.017
Alcohol intake (%)47.2569.6723.83<0.001
Current smoke (%)12.9024.041.27<0.001
Classification of occupations (%)
Managers, professionals, clerical worker27.4642.1112.16<0.001
Services and sales worker10.106.5713.79
Agricultural, forestry, fishery worker and technicians14.8026.952.12
Homemaker32.480.006.41
Others15.1524.375.52
Type of MVPA
Leisure related MVPA (%)
<150 min/wk47.1544.6249.790.005
≥150 min /wk52.8555.3850.21
Housework related MVPA (%)
<150 min/wk72.5484.7059.83<0.001
≥150 min /wk27.4615.3040.17
Work related MVPA (%)
<150 min/wk79.4272.7886.35<0.001
≥150 min /wk20.5827.2213.65

Values are presented as number only, mean±standard deviation, or percentage only.

MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity.


Table 2 . Association of psychosocial stress and varioustype of MVPA by gender

Characteristic of risk factorTotal (n=2,891)Male (n=1,477)Female (n=1,414)
Leisure-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.72* (0.57−0.92)0.50*** (0.35−0.72)0.93 (0.67−1.30)
p-value0.010<0.0010.709
Housework-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1501.22 (0.93−1.60)1.16 (0.72−1.88)1.23 (0.88−1.72)
p-value0.1400.5330.212
Work-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.74 (0.53−1.02)0.63* (0.41−0.97)0.94 (0.55−1.60)
p-value0.0700.0390.832

Values are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval).

MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Multivariable model adjusted various type of MVPA (leisure, housework, work) simultaneously as well as age, daily sitting time, education level, income level, sleep duration, alcohol consumption, current smoking, classification of occupations, quality of life.

*p<0.05, ***p<0.001.


Table 3 . Association of psychosocial stress and various type of MVPA by age

Characteristic of risk factorTotal (n=2,891)Age <65 yr (n=2,311)Age ≥65 yr (n=580)
Leisure-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.72 (0.57−0.92)0.70* (0.53−0.92)0.71 (0.42−1.19)
p-value0.0100.0130.195
Housework-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1501.22 (0.93−1.60)1.34 (0.98−1.83)0.88 (0.50−1.56)
p-value0.1420.0660.677
Work-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.74 (0.53−1.02)0.74 (0.52−1.06)0.81 (0.31−2.09)
p-value0.0770.1070.667

Values are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval).

MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Multivariable model adjusted various type of MVPA (leisure, housework, work) simultaneously as well as age, sex, daily sitting time, education level, income level, sleep duration, alcohol consumption, current smoking, classification of occupations, quality of life.

*p<0.05.


Table 4 . Association of psychosocial stress and various type of MVPA by classification of occupations

Characteristic of risk factorJob 1 (n=794)Job 2 (n=292)Job 3 (n=428)Job 4 (n=939)Job 5 (n=438)
Leisure-related MVPA (min/wk)
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.53* (0.31,0.92)1.04 (0.45–2.42)0.42* (0.21–0.84)1.05 (0.70–1.56)0.56 (0.29–1.09)
p-value0.0240.9160.0140.7980.092
Housework-related MVPA
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.93 (0.42−2.05)1.08 (0.43–2.69)0.92 (0.37–2.29)1.49* (1.00–2.23)0.96 (0.47–1.94)
p-value0.8760.8630.8600.0470.925
Work-related MVPA
<1501.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
≥1500.58 (0.30−1.11)1.19 (0.49−2.89)0.62 (0.31−1.24)1.60 (0.50−5.15)0.85 (0.35−2.04)
p-value0.1050.6910.1830.4230.720

MVPA: moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Multivariable model adjusted various type of MVPA (leisure, housework, work) simultaneously as well as age, sex, daily sitting time, education level, income level, sleep duration, alcohol consumption, current smoking, quality of life

Job 1: managers, professionals, clerical worker; job 2: services and sales worker; job3: agricultural, forestry, fishery worker and technicians; job 4: homemaker; job 5: others.

*p<0.05.



쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 룆由쎌쟻씤 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븯湲 쐞빐 꽦蹂, 굹씠, 븣肄붿삱 꽠痍 뿬遺, 씉뿰 뿬遺, 닔硫댁떆媛, 醫뚯떇떆媛, 吏곸뾽 쑀삎, 궣쓽 吏 젏닔 벑쓣 蹂댁젙蹂닔濡 닾엯븯쑝硫 紐⑤뱺 쑀쓽닔以 p<0.05濡 꽕젙븯떎.

寃 怨

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉 룷븿맂 룊洹 굹씠 58.2꽭쓽 2,891紐낆쓽 以묐뀈 꽦씤怨 끂씤 以 궓꽦 1,477紐, 뿬꽦 1,414紐낆쓣 遺꾩꽍븯쑝硫 씤援ы넻怨꾩쟻 吏몴뒗 Table 1뿉 젣떆븯떎. 뿬꽦뿉 鍮꾪빐 궓꽦씠 룊洹좎쟻쑝濡 닔硫댁떆媛꾧낵 醫뚯떇떆媛꾩씠 湲 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗怨, 냼뱷 鍮꾩쑉씠 궙 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗쑝硫, 쁽옱 쓬二 諛 씉뿰 鍮꾩쑉씠 넂寃 굹궗怨, 궣쓽 吏덉 넂 寃껋쑝濡 굹궗떎. 吏곸뾽 쑀삎쓽 寃쎌슦 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅, 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲고 湲곗닠吏, 湲고 吏곸뾽 궓꽦뿉꽌, 뙋留∙꽌鍮꾩뒪吏, 媛궗 醫낆궗옄뒗 뿬꽦뿉꽌 넂 鍮꾩쑉쓣 李⑥븯怨 엳뿀떎(p<0.001). 쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 젙룄뿉 빐 꽦蹂 李⑥씠瑜 蹂댁뒗뜲, 뿬꽦뿉 鍮꾪빐 궓꽦씠 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 吏곸뾽 諛 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 鍮꾩쑉씠 넂怨(吏곸뾽 愿젴, p<0.001; 뿬媛 愿젴, p=0.005) 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 鍮꾩쑉씠 궙 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(p<0.001). 븯吏留 굹씠뿉 엳뼱 궓꽦怨 뿬꽦 媛꾩쓽 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 李⑥씠뒗 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎(p=0.541).

以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 꽦蹂 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 2뿉 젣떆븯떎. 꽦蹂, 굹씠, 븣肄붿삱 꽠痍 뿬遺, 씉뿰 뿬遺, 닔硫댁떆媛, 醫뚯떇떆媛, 吏곸뾽 쑀삎, 궣쓽 吏 젏닔 벑 떎뼇븳 샎蹂씤쓣 蹂댁젙뻽쓣 븣 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔 李몄뿬뻽쓣 븣蹂대떎 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 OR씠 28% 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57–0.92). 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 꽦蹂 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵, 궓꽦쓽 寃쎌슦 떎뼇븳 샎蹂씤쓣 蹂댁젙뻽쓣 븣 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 諛 吏곸뾽 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔 李몄뿬뻽쓣 븣蹂대떎 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 OR씠 媛곴컖 50% (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.35–0.72) 37% (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41–0.97) 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝굹, 뿬꽦쓽 寃쎌슦 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎怨 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩뿉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎.

以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 뿰졊蹂 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 3뿉 젣떆븯떎. 65꽭 誘몃쭔쓽 꽦씤쓽 寃쎌슦 떎뼇븳 샎蹂씤쓣 蹂댁젙뻽쓣 븣 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔 李몄뿬뻽쓣 븣蹂대떎 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 OR씠 30% (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53–0.92) 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀쑝굹, 65꽭 씠긽 끂씤쓽 寃쎌슦 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎怨 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎.

以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬젙룄 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 뿰졊蹂 李⑥씠瑜 솗씤븳 寃곌낵뒗 Table 4뿉 젣떆븯떎. 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅 洹몃9(job 1)怨 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲고 湲곗닠吏 洹몃9(job 3)뿉 빐 떎뼇븳 샎蹂씤쓣 蹂댁젙뻽쓣 븣 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔 李몄뿬뻽쓣 븣蹂대떎 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 OR씠 媛곴컖 47% (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31–0.92) 58% (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21–0.84) 媛먯냼븯뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀怨, 媛궗 醫낆궗옄(job 4) 洹몃9쓽 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬뻽쓣 寃쎌슦 二쇰떦 150遺 誘몃쭔 李몄뿬뻽쓣 븣蹂대떎 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 OR씠 49% 利앷븯뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎(OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.00–2.23). 뙋留∙꽌鍮꾩뒪吏 洹몃9(job 2)怨 湲고 吏곸뾽 洹몃9(job5)쓽 寃쎌슦 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎怨 궗쉶쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩뿉 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎.

怨 李

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 李몄뿬 닔以怨 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 빐 紐 媛吏 궗떎쓣 솗씤븯떎. 泥 踰덉㎏, 떊泥댄솢룞怨 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 뿬윭 샎蹂씤뱾쓣 蹂댁젙뻽쓬뿉룄 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬뒗 떎뼇븳 슂씤뱾뿉 룆由쎌쟻쑝濡 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 OR 媛먯냼 뿰愿릺뼱 엳뿀떎. 몢 踰덉㎏, 궓꽦쓽 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 諛 吏곸뾽 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 OR 媛먯냼 뿰愿릺뼱 엳뿀쑝굹, 뿬꽦쓽 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓽 李몄뿬 닔以怨 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 쑀쓽븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎. 꽭 踰덉㎏, 65꽭 誘몃쭔 꽦씤쓽 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 OR 媛먯냼 뿰愿릺뼱 엳뿀쑝굹, 65꽭 씠긽 끂씤쓽 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓽 李몄뿬 닔以怨 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 쑀쓽븳 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎. 꽕 踰덉㎏, 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅怨 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲곗닠吏 愿젴 醫낆궗옄쓽 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 OR 媛먯냼 뿰愿릺뼱 엳뿀怨, 媛궗 醫낆궗옄쓽 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 OR 利앷 뿰愿릺뼱 엳뿀떎.

怨쇨굅遺꽣 吏꾪뻾릺뼱 삩 뒪듃젅뒪 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 뿰援щ뒗 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뒪듃젅뒪 뿭쐞愿怨꾨 媛吏怨 엳쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯怨 떎젣濡 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬뒗 媛쒖씤쓽 젙떊쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 빆븷 닔 엳뒗 뒫젰쓣 뼸寃뚮걫 룄以떎怨 蹂닿퀬맂 諛 엳떎5. 떊泥댄솢룞怨 젙떊嫄닿컯쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 꽑뻾 뿰援щ뒗, 떊泥댄솢룞씠 媛먯젙쟻씤 궣쓽 吏덉뿉 湲띿젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 젣怨듯븯쑝硫16, 諛섎濡 洹쒖튃쟻씤 슫룞뿉 李몄뿬븯吏 븡븯쓣 寃쎌슦 궗쉶떖由ы븰쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕씠 1.32諛 利앷븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎9. 삉븳 뿬媛떆媛 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뿬윭 샎蹂씤뿉 룆由쎌쟻쑝濡 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 寃쎄컧븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뼱 솕怨, 뵲씪꽌 슫룞씠 湲곕텇쓣 뼢긽떆궗 닔 엳쓬쓣 媛뺤“븯떎6.

理쒓렐源뚯쓽 끂젰뿉룄 遺덇뎄븯怨, 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 옄꽭븳 湲곗쟾쓣 꽕紐낇븯湲곗뿏 遺議깊븯떎. 븯吏留 怨쇨굅 뒪듃젅뒪 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 湲곗쟾쓣 뿰援ы븳 寃곌낵뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뒪듃젅뒪 諛섏쓳怨 뿰愿맂 遺떊뵾吏 떆뒪뀥 議곗젅怨 肄붾Ⅴ떚議 쟻쓳 諛섏쓳뿉 뿰愿릺뼱 엳쓬쓣 蹂닿퀬븯怨17, 洹쒖튃쟻씤 슫룞뿉 李몄뿬븳 궗엺 媛숈 슫룞 媛뺣룄뿉 끂異쒕릺뿀쓣 븣 洹쒖튃쟻씤 슫룞쓣 븯吏 븡뒗 궗엺뿉 鍮꾪빐 긽쟻쑝濡 遺떊뵾吏 떆뒪뀥쓣 뼲젣븷 肉먮쭔 븘땲씪 留뚯꽦 뒪듃젅뒪 諛섏쓳怨 뿰愿맂 肄붾Ⅴ떚議 遺꾨퉬뿉룄 쟻쓳븯뿬 궙 옄洹뱀쑝濡 씤吏븯寃 맖쓣 蹂닿퀬븯떎17. 떎瑜 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 솢諛쒗븳 떊泥댄솢룞 떖由ы븰쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 썝씤쓣 젙긽솕빐二쇨퀬 뒪듃젅뒪 쑀諛쒖꽦 샇瑜대が쓣 以꾩씠뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븳 諛 엳떎18. 뵲씪꽌 떊泥대 吏곸씠뒗 뿬媛떆媛꾩쓽 洹쒖튃쟻씤 洹쇰젰슫룞, 嫄룰린 벑 以∙怨좉컯룄 솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 씪떆쟻쑝濡 利앷븳 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 샇瑜대が 議곗젅뒫젰쓣 뼢긽븯怨 뒪듃젅뒪 긽솴쓣 뜙 쐞삊쟻쑝濡 諛쏆븘뱾뿬 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 뜑 쟻寃 諛쏅뒗 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎17,18.

Table 2뿉꽌 궓꽦뿉꽌留 뿬媛 諛 吏곸뾽 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽씪 븣 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕쓽 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븳 媛먯냼媛 굹굹뒗 씠쑀뒗 궓꽦怨 뿬꽦쓽 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 떎瑜닿린 븣臾몄쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞怨 룆由쎌쟻쑝濡 뒪듃젅뒪 젏닔瑜 궙異붿뿀쑝硫19, 삉븳 吏곸옣 궡 떊泥댄솢룞 옣젮 봽濡쒓렇옩뿉 李몄뿬븳 긽옄쓽 寃쎌슦 젙떊嫄닿컯씠 利앹쭊릺怨 떊泥댁쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 紐⑹씠굹 뼱源⑦넻利앹쓣 寃쎄컧븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 嫄닿컯利앹쭊쓣 쐞븳 吏곸옣궡 떊泥댄솢룞怨 뿬媛솢룞 紐⑤몢 珥됱쭊빐빞 븳떎怨 媛뺤“븯떎20. 씠윭븳 吏곸뾽 諛 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 湲띿젙쟻씤 쁺뼢뿉 빐 뿬꽦 궓꽦蹂대떎 嫄닿컯쓣 쑀吏븯湲 쐞븳 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 뜑 쟻寃 李몄뿬븯怨 엳쑝誘濡, 寃곌뎅 슫룞쑝濡 뼸쓣 닔 엳뒗 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 蹂댄샇 슚怨쇰 뜑 쟻寃 諛쏅뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬맂 諛 엳떎21. 蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌룄 궓꽦씠 뿬꽦蹂대떎 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽쓽 뿬媛(궓꽦, 55.38%; 뿬꽦, 50.21%) 諛 吏곸뾽(궓꽦, 27.22%; 뿬꽦, 13.65%) 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 뜑 留롮씠 李몄뿬븯怨 엳뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 뵲씪꽌 嫄닿컯뿉 씠젏쓣 젣怨듯븷 닔 엳뒗 吏곸뾽 諛 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬媛 궓꽦뿉 鍮꾪빐 뿬꽦씠 쟻湲 븣臾몄뿉, 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬濡 씤븳 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 蹂댄샇 슚怨쇰 쟻寃 諛쏅뒗 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎21.

Table 3뿉꽌 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽씪 븣 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕씠 65꽭 誘몃쭔뿉꽌留 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼븯怨 65꽭 씠긽뿉꽌뒗 쑀쓽븳 寃곌낵媛 굹굹吏 븡 씠쑀뒗 끂솕濡 씤븳 떊泥댁쟻, 떖由ъ궗쉶쟻 슂냼 李⑥씠 븣臾몄쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 65꽭 씠긽 끂씤쓽 寃쎌슦 떊泥댁쟻쑝濡 젣濡 吏곸씠吏 紐삵븯뒗 遺遺꾩씠굹 씪긽깮솢뿉꽌 吏곸엫뿉 뼱젮쓣 뒓겮뒗 遺遺꾩뿉 븳 뒪듃젅뒪肉 븘땲씪 嫄닿컯뿉 臾몄젣媛 諛쒖깮븳 遺遺꾩뿉 븳 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 遺遺 寃쏀뿕븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븯떎22. 씠뒗 뒪듃젅뒪媛 떊泥댁쟻 슂냼 젙꽌쟻 슂냼뿉 쁺뼢쓣 諛쏄퀬, 씠뒗 끂솕濡 씤빐 븙솕맆 닔 엳쓬쓣 媛뺤“븯떎23. 삉븳 끂씤쓽 寃쎌슦 궗옉븯뒗 궗엺쓣 엪뒗 寃쏀뿕씠굹 怨좊┰媛, 쇅濡쒖쓣 뒓겮硫 궣뿉 븳 留뚯”媛먭낵 쎇鍮숈뿉 븳 媛먭컖씠 媛먯냼릺뒗 寃쏀뿕쓣 寃る뒗 寃껋쑝濡 븣젮졇 엳떎22. 씠뒗 떎瑜 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉꽌 끂씤쓽 寃쎌슦 媛숈 솚寃쎌뿉꽌 젇 꽦씤뿉 鍮꾪빐 궗쉶쟻 怨좊┰媛먯쓣 뒓굜 쐞뿕씠 넂怨 씠윭븳 궗쉶쟻 怨좊┰媛먯씠 뒪듃젅뒪 諛섏쓳쓣 利앷떆궎뒗 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬븳 諛붿 媛숇떎24. 뵲씪꽌 65꽭쓽 끂씤쓽 寃쎌슦 65꽭 誘몃쭔쓽 以묐뀈 꽦씤蹂대떎 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬肉 븘땲씪 끂솕濡 씤븳 泥대젰 媛먯냼, 吏쟻 뒫젰 媛먯냼, 궗쉶쟻 吏쐞 媛먯냼 벑怨 媛숈 蹂듯빀쟻씤 슂씤뱾씠 궣쓽 吏덇낵 뿰愿맂 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 쁺뼢쓣 二쇨린 븣臾몄뿉22, 紐⑤뱺 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓽 李몄뿬뿉 븳 뒪듃젅뒪 蹂댄샇 슚怨쇰 諛쏆 紐삵븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

Table 4뿉꽌 吏곸뾽 쑀삎씠 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅怨 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲곗닠吏곸씪 븣, 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽씤 寃쎌슦 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕씠 넻怨꾩쟻쑝濡 쑀쓽븯寃 媛먯냼븳 寃껋쑝濡 굹굹뒗 씠쑀뒗 吏곸뾽 쑀삎蹂 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬뿉 븳 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 蹂댄샇쟻 슚怨쇨 떎瑜닿쾶 옉슜븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 뙋떒맂떎. 吏곸뾽 쑀삎뿉 븳 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以쓣 痢≪젙븳 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅쓽 寃쎌슦 궙 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以뿉 냽븳떎25. 씠뿉 븳 ‘Activity Stat’ 媛꽕뿉 뵲瑜대㈃, 떊泥댄솢룞웾씠 븳 쁺뿭뿉꽌 利앷븯嫄곕굹 媛먯냼븯寃 릺硫 珥 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓣 쑀吏븯湲 쐞빐 떎瑜 쁺뿭뿉꽌 利앷븯嫄곕굹 媛먯냼븯뒗 쁽긽씠 굹굹湲 븣臾몄뿉, 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以씠 궙 寃쎌슦 珥 떊泥댄솢룞웾쓣 쑀吏븯湲 쐞빐 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 뜑 留롮씠 李몄뿬븷 媛뒫꽦씠 넂쓬쓣 媛뺤“븯떎26. 삉븳 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲곗닠吏곸쓽 寃쎌슦 22媛쒖쓽 吏곸뾽 쑀삎 以 媛옣 넂 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以뿉 냽븯怨25, 떖븳 媛뺣룄쓽 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 뒪듃젅뒪 쑀諛쒓낵 뿰愿릺뼱 엳湲 븣臾몄뿉 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞씠 怨좉컯룄 쑀삎씪 寃쎌슦 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 寃쎄컧븯湲 쐞빐 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 李몄뿬븷 寃껋쓣 沅뚭퀬븯떎19. 뵲씪꽌 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以씠 궙 쟾臾∙愿由∙궗臾댁쭅뿉 醫낆궗븷 寃쎌슦 궙 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 蹂댁긽쑝濡 넂 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 醫낆궗븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 뒪듃젅뒪 媛먯냼뿉 湲띿젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 젣怨듯븷 寃껋쑝濡 蹂 닔 엳쑝硫19,26, 吏곸뾽 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以씠 넂 냽닔궛뾽 諛 湲곗닠吏곸씪 븣뒗 吏곸뾽 愿젴 珥덇낵맂 떊泥댄솢룞 닔以怨 뿰愿맂 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 寃쎄컧븯뒗 슚怨쇰줈 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞씠 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 湲띿젙쟻쑝濡 옉슜븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎19.

異붽쟻쑝濡 Table 4뿉꽌 吏곸뾽쑀삎씠 媛궗 醫낆궗옄씤 寃쎌슦뿉留 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 닔以씠 二쇰떦 150遺 씠긽씪 븣 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕씠 삤엳젮 利앷븯뒗 씠쑀뒗 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 떆 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 쑀諛쒗븯뒗 遺젙쟻 슂냼媛 諛쒖깮븯湲 븣臾몄쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎. 꽑뻾 뿰援ъ뿉 뵲瑜대㈃ 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 븳 李몄뿬뒗 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 씠젏쓣 뼸쓣 닔 엳뒗 以묒슂븳 슂냼씠硫19, 듅엳 궗쉶쟻 긽샇옉슜 媛꽕(social interaction hypothesis)뿉 쓽븯硫 뿬윭 궗엺뱾怨 븿猿 븯뒗 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 젙떊嫄닿컯뿉 湲띿젙쟻씤 쁺뼢쓣 以 닔 엳떎怨 븯쑝굹27, 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 寃쎌슦 뾽臾댁뿉 븳 넻젣媛 諛 利먭굅 遺議깆쑝濡 씤븳 젙떊쟻 뒪듃젅뒪媛 利앷븯쓬쓣 紐낆떆븯떎28. 삉븳 뿬媛 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 寃쎌슦 뿬윭 怨쇱젣瑜 떖꽦븯뒗 怨쇱젙쓣 넻빐 옄湲고슚뒫媛먭낵 옄떊媛먯쓣 利앹쭊떆궗 닔 엳뒗 湲고쉶媛 留롮 諛섎㈃, 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 寃쎌슦 뾽臾닿 떒닚븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 옄湲고슚뒫媛먭낵 옄떊媛먯쓣 利앹쭊떆궗 닔 엳뒗 湲고쉶媛 쟻 寃껋쑝濡 蹂닿퀬릺뿀떎29. 뵲씪꽌 吏묒븞씪 愿젴 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 寃쎌슦 궗쉶쟻씤 냼넻 遺議27, 利먭굅 遺議28, 떒닚뾽臾댁쓽 諛섎났쑝濡 씤븳 옄湲고슚뒫媛 媛먯냼29 벑쑝濡 뒪듃젅뒪 쐞뿕씠 利앷븯뒗 寃껋쑝濡 깮媛곷맂떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉뒗 紐 媛吏 젣븳젏씠 議댁옱븳떎. 泥 踰덉㎏, 蹂 뿰援щ뒗 슒떒뿰援ъ씠湲 븣臾몄뿉 뒪듃젅뒪 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎 媛꾩쓽 뿰愿꽦뿉 븳 紐낇솗븳 꽑썑 愿怨꾨 꽕紐낇븯湲 遺議깊븯떎. 븯吏留 援媛 뜲씠꽣瑜 넗濡 留롮 씤썝닔瑜 긽옄濡 룷븿븯湲 븣臾몄뿉 異뷀썑 떆怨꾩뿴 異붿쟻議곗궗瑜 쐞븳 湲곗큹옄猷뚮씪뒗 쓽쓽媛 엳떎. 몢 踰덉㎏, 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎怨 媛뺣룄, 鍮덈룄, 떆媛꾩뿉 븳 빆紐⑹씠 紐⑤몢 꽕臾몄瑜 넻빐 痢≪젙릺뿀湲 븣臾몄뿉 痢≪젙옄쓽 二쇨쟻씤 쓳떟怨 쉶긽 렪뼢뿉 븳 臾몄젣젏씠 議댁옱븳떎. 븯吏留 떊泥댄솢룞뿉 빐 媛앷쟻씤 痢≪젙씠 媛뒫븳 媛냽룄怨꾩“李 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓣 遺꾨쪟븯뿬 痢≪젙븷 닔 뾾湲 븣臾몄뿉, 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂꾨줈 媛앷솕맂 痢≪젙씠 媛뒫븳 옣鍮꾨 넻빐 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤븷 븘슂媛 엳떎. 꽭 踰덉㎏, 蹂 뿰援ъ쓽 긽 寃쎄린룄 븞궛떆뿉 嫄곗<븯뒗 40–69꽭 꽦씤쑝濡, 븳援 꽦씤쓣 몴븳떎怨 蹂닿린 뼱졄떎. 뵲씪꽌 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 븳援쓽 洹쒕え 肄뷀샇듃 옄猷뚮 넻븳 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 뒪듃젅뒪쓽 뿰愿꽦쓣 솗씤빐 蹂 븘슂꽦씠 엳떎. 꽕 踰덉㎏, 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎쓣 吏곸옣, 뿬媛, 吏묒븞씪濡 援щ텇븯怨 媛곴컖쓽 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 븳 뿰愿꽦留뚯쓣 솗씤뻽湲 븣臾몄뿉 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎 媛꾩쓽 긽샇옉슜쓣 솗씤븷 닔 뾾뿀떎. 異뷀썑 뿰援ъ뿉뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎蹂 긽샇옉슜씠 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 뼱뼚븳 쁺뼢쓣 젣怨듯븯뒗吏 솗씤씠 븘슂븯떎.

蹂 뿰援ъ뿉꽌뒗 넂 닔以쓽 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞怨 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪 媛먯냼뒗 꽌濡 뿰愿릺뼱 엳쓬쓣 솗씤븯怨, 꽦蹂, 뿰졊蹂, 吏곸뾽쑀삎蹂 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞 쑀삎 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪뿉 媛곴컖 떎瑜닿쾶 쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂뒗 寃껋쓣 솗씤븷 닔 엳뿀떎. 뒪듃젅뒪뒗 嫄닿컯뿉 븙쁺뼢쓣 誘몄튂湲 븣臾몄뿉 援媛쟻 李⑥썝뿉꽌 뒪듃젅뒪 愿由ъ뿉 븳 뿬윭 諛⑸쾿쓣 媛뺢뎄빐빞 븳떎. 뵲씪꽌 뿬媛 愿젴 以∙怨좉컯룄 떊泥댄솢룞쓽 李몄뿬뒗 以묐뀈 꽦씤쓽 궗쉶떖由ъ쟻 뒪듃젅뒪瑜 媛쒖꽑븯뿬 嫄닿컯 媛쒖꽑 諛 궣쓽 吏 利앹쭊쓣 룄紐⑦븷 닔 엳쓣 寃껋씠씪 깮媛곹븯硫, 援媛뿉꽌뒗 떊泥댄솢룞 李몄뿬 봽濡쒓렇옩留뚯쓣 옣젮븯뒗 寃껋씠 븘땲씪 꽦蹂, 뿰졊蹂, 吏곸뾽 쑀삎蹂꾨줈 떊泥댄솢룞쓣 옣젮븯嫄곕굹, 異⑸텇븳 쑕떇쓣 옣젮븷 븘슂꽦씠 엳떎 븯寃좊떎.

Conflict of Interest

No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

Author Contributions

Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation: DYP. Methodology, Supervision: DYP, JYP, EKK. Project administration: YSK. Validation: DYP, YSK. Writing–original draft: DYP. Writing–review & editing: all authors.

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